Definitions

Schuman

Schuman

[shoo-muhn or, for 1, Fr. shoo-mahn]
Schuman, Robert, 1886-1963, French statesman and lawyer, b. grand duchy of Luxembourg. A member of the Catholic Mouvement Républicain Populaire (MRP), he was finance minister (1946, 1947) and premier (1947-48). He continued as foreign minister (1948-53), and as such, did much to promote European unity. In 1950 he proposed the creation of a West European coal and steel pool. This so-called Schuman Plan, which had been drafted by Jean Monnet, became effective in 1952 with the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the first step toward the creation of the European Union. Schuman was president (1958-60) of the European Parliamentary Assembly.
Schuman, William, 1910-92, American composer, b. New York City. Schuman taught at Sarah Lawrence College (1935-45) and was twice a Guggenheim Fellow (1939 and 1940). While president of the Juilliard School of Music (1945-62) he helped initiate the Juilliard Quartet. He was also president of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts (1962-69). His outstanding compositions are his Third Symphony and his Fourth Symphony (both 1941); his American Festival Overture (1939); Symphony for Strings (1943); Newsreel (1941); two secular cantatas, This is Our Time (1940) and A Free Song (1942; awarded the first Pulitzer Prize in music, 1943); the ballet Undertow (1945); the opera The Mighty Casey (Hartford, 1953); and several chamber works. His music is highly contrapuntal and often employs complex rhythms suggestive of jazz. Schuman was awarded a second Pulitzer in 1985, this time for his lifetime achievements in composition, teaching, and administration.

(born Aug. 4, 1910, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 15, 1992, New York City) U.S. composer and administrator. He wrote songs in high school with his friend Frank Loesser. In 1930 he began studying composition with Roy Harris. He achieved success with his American Festival Overture (1939), and his Secular Cantata No. 2: A Free Song won the first Pulitzer Prize for music (1943). His other works include ballets for Martha Graham, the popular New England Triptych (1956), and 10 symphonies. As president of the Juilliard School (1945–62), he modernized its curriculum. As the first president of Lincoln Center (1962–68), he brought together several music organizations and established its Chamber Music Society and Mostly Mozart program.

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(born Aug. 4, 1910, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 15, 1992, New York City) U.S. composer and administrator. He wrote songs in high school with his friend Frank Loesser. In 1930 he began studying composition with Roy Harris. He achieved success with his American Festival Overture (1939), and his Secular Cantata No. 2: A Free Song won the first Pulitzer Prize for music (1943). His other works include ballets for Martha Graham, the popular New England Triptych (1956), and 10 symphonies. As president of the Juilliard School (1945–62), he modernized its curriculum. As the first president of Lincoln Center (1962–68), he brought together several music organizations and established its Chamber Music Society and Mostly Mozart program.

Learn more about Schuman, William (Howard) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 29, 1886, Luxembourg—died Sept. 4, 1963, Metz, France) French statesman. He was a member of the French National Assembly from 1919. After working in the French Resistance in World War II, he helped found the Popular Republican Movement. He served as finance minister (1946), premier (1947–48), foreign minister (1948–52), and minister of justice (1955–56). In 1950 he proposed the Schuman Plan to promote European economic and military unity, which led to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community (EEC). He served as president of the EEC's consultative assembly (1958–60).

Learn more about Schuman, Robert with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 29, 1886, Luxembourg—died Sept. 4, 1963, Metz, France) French statesman. He was a member of the French National Assembly from 1919. After working in the French Resistance in World War II, he helped found the Popular Republican Movement. He served as finance minister (1946), premier (1947–48), foreign minister (1948–52), and minister of justice (1955–56). In 1950 he proposed the Schuman Plan to promote European economic and military unity, which led to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community (EEC). He served as president of the EEC's consultative assembly (1958–60).

Learn more about Schuman, Robert with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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