Schuman

Schuman

[shoo-muhn or, for 1, Fr. shoo-mahn]
Schuman, Robert, 1886-1963, French statesman and lawyer, b. grand duchy of Luxembourg. A member of the Catholic Mouvement Républicain Populaire (MRP), he was finance minister (1946, 1947) and premier (1947-48). He continued as foreign minister (1948-53), and as such, did much to promote European unity. In 1950 he proposed the creation of a West European coal and steel pool. This so-called Schuman Plan, which had been drafted by Jean Monnet, became effective in 1952 with the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the first step toward the creation of the European Union. Schuman was president (1958-60) of the European Parliamentary Assembly.
Schuman, William, 1910-92, American composer, b. New York City. Schuman taught at Sarah Lawrence College (1935-45) and was twice a Guggenheim Fellow (1939 and 1940). While president of the Juilliard School of Music (1945-62) he helped initiate the Juilliard Quartet. He was also president of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts (1962-69). His outstanding compositions are his Third Symphony and his Fourth Symphony (both 1941); his American Festival Overture (1939); Symphony for Strings (1943); Newsreel (1941); two secular cantatas, This is Our Time (1940) and A Free Song (1942; awarded the first Pulitzer Prize in music, 1943); the ballet Undertow (1945); the opera The Mighty Casey (Hartford, 1953); and several chamber works. His music is highly contrapuntal and often employs complex rhythms suggestive of jazz. Schuman was awarded a second Pulitzer in 1985, this time for his lifetime achievements in composition, teaching, and administration.
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