East Godavari District is a district situated on the northeast of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Its district headquarters is Kakinada. The district is bounded on the north by Visakhapatnam District and the state of Orissa, on the northwest by Khammam District, on the east and south by the Bay of Bengal and on the west by West Godavari District. Rajahmundry is the largest city in the godavari districts. Rajahmundry is one of the well known business centre in Coastal Andhra.
The district passed into the hands of Vishnukundinas during the rule of Vikramendra Varma I during the 5th century. The records indicate that their domain extended over Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur Districts in addition to East Godavari District. Indra Bhattaraka defeated the rulers of Vasistha Kula and re-established Vihsnukundina authority, but was shortly defeated by Kalinga armies. Indra Bhattaraka was followed to the throne by a few others, including Madha Varma III and Manchanna Bhattaraka, who tried to restore their kingdom. Madhava Varma III was the last important ruler of this family.Pulakesin II of Badami Chalukyas and his brother Kubja Vishnu Vardhana acquired Pistapura in the 7th century. The Eastern Chalukya dynasty, founded by Kubja Vishnu Vardhana, ruled at first form Pistapura, then from Vengi, and later from Rajahmundry. Many rulers held sway over the kingdom and their history is at times largely a record of disputes over succession. Chalukya Bhima I of this dynasty built a Shiva temple at Draksha Ramam. Jata Choda Bhima of Peda Kallu (Kurnool District) killed Danarnava of this dynasty and occupied Vengi in 973 A.D. Danarnava's two sons, Sakti Varma I and Vimala Aditya, fled from the kingdom and took refuge in the court of the Chola king Rajaraja Chola I. Rajaraja invaded Vengi on behalf of the sons of Danarnava and killed Jata Choda Bhima. Satya Raya of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani did not like the Chola influence in Vengi and the area witnessed many wars between the Cholas and Chalukyas. After the death of Vijaya Aditya VII in 0175 A.D., the Eastern Chalukya dynasty came to an end.
Kulothunga Chola I (Rajendra Chalukya), rival of Vijay Aditya VII, fought along the sides of Cholas and established the Chalukya Cholas province. The district along with the rest of the Vengi kingdom became part of their empire. Major portions of the district were under Velanati Chodas, trustworthy chieftains to his. The famous rulers of this dynasty were Gonka I, Rajendra Choda I, Gonka II and Rajendra Choda II. Vikram Aditya vii of Western Chalukyas occupied this region for short period, but it was recovered by Chalukya Cholas and Velanti Chodas. Velanati chiefs also suppressed rebellions from Haihayas of Kona, Gonka II and Rudra of the Kakatiya dynasty.Draksha Ramam in 13th century throw light on their history. Prola II of the Kakatiya dynasty declared independence from the western Chalukyas and became a subject of Chalukya Cholas. His son Rudra obtained the Godavari delta as gift from the Rajaraja II of Chalukya Cholas. Rudra's authority over the Godavari delta was challenged by the Velanadu Chodas. The Velanati king Rajendra Choda II sent an army under his minister Davana Preggada against Rudra. Rudra was succeeded by his younger brother Mahadeva who died in a conflict with the Yadavas of Devagiri. His son Ganapathi succeeded to the Kakatiya throne. Ganapathi defated Kalinga armies on the north, Pandyas of Madurai and Cholas with the help of Nellore Chodas. The Kakatiya power remained undisturbed in the Godavari region throughout the reign of Ganapathi and her daughter Rudrama devi. Pratap Rudra ascended the throne in 1295 and faced many attacks from Sultans of Delhi. After his defeat by Muhammad-bin-Tughluq in 1323, the district came under the rule of the Delhi Sultnate. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq divided South India into five provinces and appointed governors.
Kumaragiri fought many wars with the Racherlas of Rachakonda and the Kalinga rulers. He sent his general Kataya Vema along with Prince Anavota to conquer the eastern region. This resulted in the annexation of a large tract in the north as far as Simhachalam. The newly acquired territory was annexed to the Reddi Kingdom and constituted into a separate province called the eastern kingdom. Prince Anavota ruled this province with Raja-mahendra-varam as his capital. He died a premature death around 1395 and Kataya Vema, the general and brother-in-law of Kumar Giri, was given Rajamahendra Rajya in appreciation of the services rendered by him to the State. Kataya Vema's departure to Raja-mahendra-varam led to the seizure of the throne of Kondaveedu by force by Peda Komati Vema.
Peda Komati Vema's authority was defined by Kataya Vema. Kataya Vema was also involved in conflict with Eruva chief Annadeva Choda, who managed to occupy a large portion of the Rajamahendra Rajya. He was, however, defeated and driven back by Kataya Vema. Later, Kataya Vema died in a battle with Anna Deva Choda. After his death, Allada Reddi placed Kataya Vemas' son Komaragiri on the throne of Rajamahendravaram and ruled the kingdom as his regent. Komarigiri died a premature death. Allada Reddi ruled this region till his death in 1420. About 1423, the Vijayanagara ruler Deva Raya II defeated Vira Bhadra, who was then ruling this kingdom and reduced it to subjection.
At Kondaveedu, Racha Vema succeeded Peda Komati Vema to the throne. His rule was very oppressive, and he received little support from his subjects when the Gajapatis of Orissa and Rayas of Vijayanagar invaded the kingdom. Kapileswara Gajapati crushed the Reddi power and annexed the Rajamahendra Rajya to his dominion.
After the death of Kapileswara Gajapati in 1470, there was a fight between his sons Hamvira and Purushottma for succession. Hamvira succeeded in occupying the throne with the help of Bahmanis but he could not retain it for long. Purushottama overthrew Hamvira and tried to reconquer Rajahmundry and other places. But Muhammad Shah III lead the forces to Rajahmundry. This battle, However, ended with the conclusion of peace treaty. After the death of Muhammad Shah III, Purushottama Gajapathi overran the whole of the Godavari-Krishna doab and drove the Bahmani forces as far south as Kondaveedu. Purushottama was succeeded by his son Prataparudra. The Vijayanagar monarch Krishna Deva Raya invaded his kingdom and brought Rajahmundry under subjugation. However, a treaty was concluded wherein Pratapa Rudra agreed to give his daughter in marriage to Krishna Deva Raya in return of the territory north of the Krishna conquered by Krishna Deva Raya.
During this period, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb brought most of southern India under his control. Aurangzeb conquered the sultanate of Golconda in 1687, and Golconda, including East Godavari District, became one of the twenty-two provinces of the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb appointed viceroys to carry out the administration of these provinces. The Nizam-ul-Mulk (viceroy) of Golconda looked after the administration through military officers called Fauzdars. The Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar appointed Asaf Jah as the Nizam-ul-Mulk of the Deccan. He was, however, replaced by Husian Ali Khan, and during the time of emperor Muhammad Shah, Asaf Jah invaded the Deccan, defeated and killed Mubariz Khan in the battle of Shakar Khera in 1724 and ruled the Deccan as Nizam of Hyderabad.
The Nizam-ul-Mulk's death in 1748 led to a war of succession between his son Nasir Jung and his grandson Muzaffar Jung. The French and the British took different sides each. The dispute ended with the accession of Salabat Jung, with the help of the French General Bussy. General Bussy was, however, summoned to the south by Lally, the new Governor-General of the French possessions in India. As soon as he left, Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, the new Raja of Vizianagaram, invited the English to come and occupy the Northern Circars. The tussle that ensued between the French and the English ended with the French losing all possessions in Northern Circars.
Salabat Jung was subsequently deposed by his brother Nizam Ali Khan, who leased out Rajahmundry and Chicacole to Hasan Ali Khan. Lord Robert Clive, entered into negotiations with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam, and obtained a firman ceding the Northern Circars to the British East India Company in August 1765, but it was kept a secret until March 1766. The fort of Kondapalli was seized by the British, and General Cillaud was sent to Machilipatnam to undertake military operations, if necessary. The Nizam also made brisk preparations for war. War was prevented by the signing of a treaty on November 12, 1766 by which the Company, in return for occupying the Circars, undertook to maintain troops for the Nizam's assistance.
The Zamindars came into prominence during the period preceding the transfer of the district to the British. The Zamindars of Rampa, Peddapuram, Pithapuram, Kota and Ramchandrapuram were the important zamindars of this region.
The district is divided into 5 Revenue Divisions and 60 revenue mandals among which 58 are rural and 2 are urban. The district has 57 Mandal Praja Parishads and 1,011 Gram Panchayats and nine Municipalities and Municipal Corporations. Total number of villages in the district is 1,379.
As per G.O.Ms.No.31, Revenue (Registration & Mandals) Department, Dated 05-06-2002 a new Rural Mandal Routhulapudi (44 villages) with head quarters at Routhulapudi was formed by transferring certain villages from Sankhavaram (12 villages), Kotananduru (31 villages) and Tuni (1 village) Mandals, there by making total number of Mandals to be 60.
Child Population 0-6 Age Group
There are numerous educational institutes. Few of the prominent ones include: