schaumburg

Schaumburg-Lippe

[shoum-boork-lip-uh]

Former German state. Schaumburg was the ancestral seat of a line of counts recorded from the early 12th century. The line died out in 1640 and the lands were partitioned. It joined the German Confederation in 1815 and the German empire in 1871. It joined the Weimar Republic in 1918 as a free state; in 1946 it was merged into the state of Lower Saxony.

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Schaumburg is a village in Cook County. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 75,386. As of 2005, the population slightly dropped to 72,690 according to the Census Bureau. A special census conducted by Schaumburg in 2007 shows it had actually increased to 75,936.

The city has the headquarters of Motorola. One of only two IKEA stores in Illinois is in Schaumburg. It contains the Woodfield Mall, one of the largest malls in America in terms of shopping area . The city is also the home of the Schaumburg Flyers, a Northern League baseball team whose ballpark, Alexian Field, is located near the Elgin O'Hare Expressway. Schaumburg's transition from a rural community to that of a suburban metropolis began with Alfred Campanelli's first large scale suburban-style development in 1959 and Woodfield Mall's opening on September 9, 1971. Inside the city is 1 of 9 of the Medieval Times buildings.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 19.1 square miles (49.5 km²), of which, 19.0 square miles (49.2 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.3 km²) of it (0.63%) is water.

History

19th century

The City of Schaumburg was incorporated on March 7, 1956, but the heritage of Schaumburg dates back to much earlier times when the first inhabitants of the area were members of the Sauk, Fox, Pottawatomie, and Kickapoo Native American tribes. By the mid-nineteenth century, settlers first began to arrive from Germany and the eastern United States.

Legend has it that one of the earliest settler was Trumball Kent from Oswego, New York. Kent, a "Yankee," as settlers from New England were called in the west, farmed property in the northeast corner of the township. Another Yankee was Hoarace Williams, who owned substantial lands but lived in the hamlet of Palatine in Palatine Township. Ernst Schween settled in 1835 not far from what is now called Olde Schaumburg Centre, in what was then and is now known as Sarah's Grove. Another early settler in Schaumburg Township was German born Johann Sunderlage. According to one legend, Sunderlage was a member of a survey team that divided Cook County into townships around 1833 or according to another legend, worked on a survey team on the Joliet canal. He liked the area so much that, upon completion of the project, he returned to Europe and brought his family and friends from Germany and settled in the area now known as Hoffman Estates in Schaumburg Township around 1836. His home still stands in its original location.

Sunderlage and his family occupied their land in the Township until the federal land sale of 1842 allowed them to purchase the property and obtain the deed. Sunderlage and Kent represented the predominant groups that settled Schaumburg Township in its early days. In 1840, 56 percent of the Township households originated from the eastern United States, while 28 percent were German-born. By the 1850s, the population mix had settled to 28 percent “Yankee” and 48 percent German.

By 1870, Schaumburg Township had become completely German. Land records show that most of the property in the Township was owned by German immigrants or their descendants. This pattern emerged as many Yankee 'settlers' continued to travel west for the promise of newly opened lands on the Great Plains. The land they owned in Schaumburg was then purchased by German-born immigrants.

Schaumburg Township remained almost exclusively under German ownership until the Great Depression of the 1930s. The Depression caused the foreclosure on some German-owned farms which were then purchased by non-German individuals and companies. Nonetheless, German heritage remained important in the area. German was the first language of the majority of households until the 1950s.

St. Peter Lutheran Church, the community's oldest church held services in German as late as 1970. The church remains as a museum, as does the second church of this congregation. Services were first held at the Rohlwing-Fenz store at the Southwest corner of the intersection of Schaumburg Road and Roselle Road until their first church building was completed in 1847. The pastor was Francis Hoffman, who walked from the Bensenville area to hold services in Schaumburg. He was later to become a Lieutenant Governor in Illinois and when he retired from the ministry, moved to Wisconsin where he operated an experimental farm and was editor of a German Language Newspaper addressing the issues of farming. Other names, dating from the 1840s were: Quindel, Winkelhake, Moeller, Fenz, Kastning, Lichthardt, Meyer, Rohlwing, Thies Scheiderling and Freise.

Schaumburg Township was originally known as Sarah's Grove. This name was derived from a grove of woods that ran through the northwest portion of the Township, which was named for three young women whose families lived adjacent to the grove: Sarah McChesney, Sarah Frisbe, and Sarah Smith. However, the name was never made official and the family names have yet to be accounted for in any documentation. Until 1851, the area's official name was Township 41. At the 1850 Township meeting, residents discussed two names for the Township; Lutherville and Lutherburg. In the middle of the discussion Frederick Nerge, a prominent German landowner, put his fist down on the table and called out, "Schaumburg schall es heisen!" (It will be called Schaumburg!). With this statement, a consensus was reached on the Township's official name.

This chosen name derived from Schaumburg-Lippe, the part of Germany where many of the Township's residents originated. The majority of German settlers were from the Hesse-Kassel (Hesse-Cassel) or Hanover districts, but apparently those from the Schaumburg area had more influence in the community's affairs.

Schaumburg Township prospered during its early days. The area's main occupation was farming, with potato growing, dairy products and raising cattle as main sources of income. The land was a very large meadow surrounded by extensive wilderness. Wildlife such as geese, ducks, quail, prairie chickens, rabbits, pheasant and deer were very abundant.

In 1858, a small market area emerged at what is now the intersection of Schaumburg and Roselle Roads. Schaumburg Centre functioned as the central service district for the surrounding agricultural producers. It included two general stores, four cheese factories, a cobbler, a tailor, a wagon maker, and a blacksmith.

Most of the early growth in the Northeast region of Illinois occurred along the Fox River Valley and the major rail lines. Since neither of these transportation networks served Schaumburg Township, the Township remained rather isolated. Few roads existed, and several were often impassable. To reach the market, Schaumburg farmers had to travel by oxen or horses to Chicago, which only had about 35,000 inhabitants at that time.

20th century

In 1900, during a period of German nationalism, a 50 year anniversary brochure reported the following account: "Schaumburg has, as an important 'English daily newspaper' said: 'The reputation of being the model community of Cook County. Also, the town of Schaumburg is an example of a community for all other towns in Cook County and probably in other counties, too. Schaumburg is prompt in the payment of its taxes; it supports churches and schools; it has also the best roads in the land and - Schaumburg has never had a jail.' Finally, it is not just for the settlers only, but also for foreigners."

In 1925, O. D. Jennings, the founder of what was once one of the largest manufacturers of slot machines in the United States, purchased a house in the village. It would be his and his wife's home until his death in 1953. On the death of his widow, the house and its surrounding park lands were donated to the village, and used as the Village Hall until 1971.

This isolation was broken, however, as the automobile became the primary means of transportation. Two projects, the expansion of O'Hare Field into a major international airport in 1955 and the construction of the Northwest Tollway through the farmlands in 1956, and the presence of technical and business people at Pure Oil Company put Schaumburg in an ideal location for suburban growth. In response to development pressures, the area encompassing what was known as Schaumburg Centre, was incorporated in 1956. At the time of incorporation, the Village consisted of two square miles and a population of 130 residents.

Incorporation enabled the village to control its growth and development. Early village leaders are credited with the foresight and planning that has made later economic growth possible. The original comprehensive plan adopted by the Village Board in 1961, reserved large tracts of land for industrial, commercial, and office development. Growth in these sectors has made the village a major area employer and the State's second largest retail center.

Schaumburg's expansion during the 1960s changed the character of the community dramatically. Schaumburg was no longer a quiet rural community. In 1959, Alfred Campanelli began construction of the first large residential subdivision in the Village, known as Weathersfield. The subdivision now contains several thousand single-family homes built in 22 stages over two decades. In all, Campanelli constructed over 6,800 housing units or approximately 20% of the Village's housing stock. In 1967, the International Village apartment complex opened as Schaumburg's first multiple-family housing development. The following year, Motorola began to construct its corporate headquarters in the community on a site located adjacent to the Northwest Tollway.

During this time, country singer Bob Atcher ("You Are My Sunshine"), who had become known on the old WLS National Barn Dance, became Schaumburg village president. He held that position until 1975.

The 1970s saw a continuation of the tremendous growth that took place in the previous decade. By 1970, the village population had grown to 18,730. That same year, a second expressway, Interstate 290, opened on the eastern boundary of the village. This provided another link to Chicago and further enhanced its stature in the eyes of the region's many developers. The following year, Woodfield Mall shopping center opened in Schaumburg. During the remainder of the decade, Schaumburg experienced phenomenal commercial, office, industrial and residential development.

In 1978, the Village Board formally established the Olde Schaumburg Centre Overlay District to preserve the character of the area generally located at the intersection of Schaumburg and Roselle Roads. The Olde Schaumburg Centre Commission, also established in 1978, reviews new development and restoration projects in the District to ensure the continued historic appeal of the area.

By 1980, Schaumburg had expanded to of land area, and its population had swelled to 53,305 residents. During the early and mid 1980s, development focused on large corporate office buildings and the emerging Woodfield Regional Center along Golf Road. The late 1980s was characterized by the vast expansion of small manufacturing and warehouse uses in the industrial and business parks in the city's northeast and southwest quadrants. Other development such as large manufacturing facilities, commercial retail centers, and large suite hotels boomed in the 1980s. Schaumburg was profiled in Joel Garreau's 1991 book, Edge City, as a suburb conforming to a new form of urban development in which large concentrations of jobs exist, though outside the traditional downtown city centers.

By 1990, Schaumburg's population was increasing at a slower rate as land available for residential development was rapidly disappearing. The population in 1990 had risen to 68,586, an increase in 15,281 persons since 1980. Although this was still an impressive growth rate, it was apparent Schaumburg was nearing residential build-out and that future increases would be diminishing.

Office development in the 1990s had also slowed. The once booming office market slumped due to the large supply of office space in the northwest suburbs and the limited demand by typical users in the financial, insurance, and real estate sectors. Yet, the Schaumburg commercial market enjoyed substantial expansion during this period. Since 1990, Schaumburg has witnessed the development of 2.0 million square feet (180,000 m²) of commercial space including a variety of retail uses. One Schaumburg Place, now known as Streets of Woodfield after being redeveloped, and Woodfield City Green were built in the early 1990s. A bright future was also reflected by the Woodfield Mall expansion which included approximately of commercial space to accommodate Nordstrom department store and several other retail stores. IKEA, an internationally known home furnishings store, opened a facility in the Woodfield Regional Center in the late 1990s.

The mid 1990s also experienced an influx of retail food establishments. Pizzeria Uno, Outback Steakhouse, Chevy's, Boston Market, Champps, Chandlers, Hooters, Rainforest Cafe, Joe's Crab Shack and Maggiano's all opened in the village during this time.

In the fall of 1993, the Elgin-O'Hare Expressway opened. This expressway connects Schaumburg to neighboring communities to the southwest and Interstate 290 to the southeast. It also provides convenient access to Spectrum Industrial Park and the nearby Schaumburg Regional Airport, which the village purchased in 1994 and expanded in 1995.

The village finalized the purchase of the Town Square shopping center in 1995, clearing the way for the complete redevelopment of the property. The 27 acre site at the southwest corner of Schaumburg and Roselle Roads has been transformed into a diverse development offering a few stores including Dominicks, the township library, restaurants, general retail development, and a public amphitheater. The new development was designed to respect the historic character of the Olde Schaumburg Centre, providing late 19th century and early 20th century architectural design and a park to entice residents to casually walk the area and stop at the various establishments.

Minor league baseball came to the village in the spring of 1999. Alexian Field, the 7,000 seat baseball stadium, was built in partnership with the Schaumburg Park District just north of the commuter rail facility. Alexian Field acts as home to the Schaumburg Flyers, a member of the independent Northern League.

21st century

In 2000, the village purchased 45 acres of land at the northeast corner of Interstate 90 (Northwest Tollway) and Meacham Road. The purchase was made to reserve the last large parcel of property for possible use as a convention center, hotel, and performing arts center. Schaumburg has been working for over 15 years to bring a convention center to the village that would bring new jobs, new visitors, and significant new economic activity.

In July 2004 a groundbreaking was held for the Schaumburg Hotel & Convention Center and Hotel on a 45 acre site at Meacham Road and I-90. The showpiece of Schaumburg, this new hotel/convention center propels the City of Schaumburg into a new realm of commerce and tourism. This mixed-use complex opened on July 29, 2006 and incorporates a convention center with over of exhibition space and a 500-room hotel. Guests are expected to enjoy a high level of personal service and amenities including a business center, health club, pool and whirlpool/spa, fine dining and a 15th floor penthouse level executive club with an outdoor terrace. The design is under the direction of John Portman & Associates, known for its vision, creativity and understanding of the human response to space, nature, and light.

As Schaumburg reaches the 50th anniversary of its incorporation, continued expansion is expected albeit at a slower rate than in years past. With a population of 75,386 in 2000, minimal residential growth both in the single-family and multiple-family market is expected as little residential land remains. Office development activity in the Woodfield Regional Center began to increase in 1997 after almost a decade of absorption. Nearly 2 million square feet (180,000 m²) of office space has been added to the Woodfield Regional Center in the last five years. Industrial development has remained steady throughout the 1990s with activity increasing in 1996 and 1997 during a period of economic boom. The majority of industrial development is expected to occur in the Spectrum Industrial Park, Woodfield Business Center and Copley Center. Finally, future redevelopment should also occur around the proposed Suburban Transit Access Route (Metra) transit stop, proposed to be located south the Walden International PUD and north of IKEA and Windy Point Office Park along the Northwest Tollway.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 75,386 people, 31,799 households, and 19,301 families residing in the village. The population density was 3,967.1 people per square mile (1,531.9/km²). There were 33,093 housing units at an average density of 1,741.5/sq mi (672.5/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 78.78% White, 3.35% African American, 0.10% Native American, 14.19% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.73% from other races, and 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.29% of the population.

There were 31,799 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.9% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.3% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the village the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 36.3% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.9 males.

According to a 2006 estimate, the median income for a household in the village was $65,089, and the median income for a family was $89,522. Males had a median income of $91,319 versus $76,108 for females. The per capita income for the village was $30,587. About 2.0% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.0% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over.

Business

Schaumburg is the largest center of retail development in the State of Illinois, outside the City of Chicago. Its retail sales are $3.14 billion, general sales $420.5 million as of 2006.

Transportation

Schaumburg has a station on Metra's Milwaukee District/West Line, which provides daily rail service between Elgin, Illinois and Chicago, Illinois (at Union Station).

Education

Public elementary schools and junior high schools in Schaumburg are operated by Community Consolidated School District 54. The schools are funded through the income from the sales tax from the many businesses in Schaumburg. Schaumburg itself does not impose a property tax on its residents, although Cook County does. 13 of the 27 total schools in District 54 lie within the borders of Schaumburg. These schools have acquired many accolades including recent Blue Ribbon Awards, Teachers Who Excel, as well as being well known for their services in Special Education, Bilingual and Dual Language programs, and Gifted Education. District 54 also prides itself with a dedication to technology and the fine arts.

Schaumburg falls within Township High School District 211. There are five High Schools within District 211: Schaumburg High School, Hoffman Estates High School, William Fremd High School, Palatine High School, and James B. Conant High School. The majority of students living in Schaumburg are sent to Schaumburg High School; however some attend nearby Hoffman Estates High School and James B. Conant High School. Schaumburg High School is going under extensive construction in order to add additional classrooms, science labs and faculty offices.

Several colleges are located in Schaumburg including the Illinois Institute of Art — Schaumburg, Roosevelt University, and the Illinois Institute of Design and Technology.

See also

References

External links

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