Scharwenka, Franz Xaver, 1850-1924, Polish-German pianist and composer. He founded his own conservatories in Berlin (1881) and New York City (1891). Beginning in 1874 he toured in Europe and the United States. Of his compositions, only a few piano pieces are still popular. His brother Ludwig Philipp Scharwenka, 1847-1917, was associated with him in teaching and composed several orchestral works, chamber music, and choral music.