Schally, Andrew V., 1926-, American endocrinologist, b. Wilno, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania), as Andrzej Viktor Schally, grad. McGill Univ. (Ph.D., 1957). He spent most of his career at Tulane Univ. School of Medicine and the Veterans Administration Hospital in New Orleans, La. Schally shared the 1977 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Roger Guillemin and Rosalyn Yalow. He is credited with discovering three hormones produced by the hypothalamus: thyrotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Schally's discoveries led to the recognition that the hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland and opened the door to research in contraception, diabetes, and growth and mental disorders.
Andrzej Viktor Schally (born November 30, 1926) is an Polish endocrinologist and Nobel Prize laureate (1977) in medicine.


Schally was born in Wilno, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania), and received his education in Scotland and England. In 1952, he moved to Canada. He received his doctorate in endocrinology from McGill University in 1957. That same year he left for a research career in the United States where he has worked principally at Tulane University. A Canadian citizen when he left Canada, Schally became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1962. He was affiliated with the Baylor College of Medicine for some years in Houston, Texas.

He developed a whole new realm of knowledge concerning the brain's control over the body chemistry. His works also addressed birth control methods and growth hormones. He – as well as Roger Guillemin – described the neurohormone GnRH that controls FSH and LH.

Schally received an honoris causa Doctors degree from the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland. He received a Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1977.


  • Aleksandra Ziółkowska, Korzenie są polskie (The Roots Are Polish), Warsaw, 1992, ISBN 83-7066-406-7.
  • Aleksandra Ziółkowska Boehm, The Roots Are Polish, Toronto, 2004, ISBN 0-920517-05-6.
  • Aleksandra Ziółkowska Boehm, Women Need Penises, Too, New York, 2005, ISBN 0-982739-04-8.
  • Nicholas Wade, The Nobel Duel, Garden City, Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1981.

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