Definitions

schack a. krogh

August Krogh

Schack August Steenberg Krogh (November 15, 1874September 13, 1949) was a Danish professor with partly Romani background (Romani mother ) at the department of zoophysiology at the University of Copenhagen from 1916-1945. He contributed a number of fundamental discoveries within several fields of physiology, and is famous for developing the Krogh Principle.

In 1920 August Krogh was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the mechanism of regulation of the capillaries in skeletal muscle. Krogh was first to describe the adaptation of blood perfusion in muscle and other organs according to demands through opening and closing the arterioles and capillaries.

Krogh was a pioneer in comparative studies on animals. He wrote his thesis on the respiration through the skin and lungs in frogs: Respiratory Exchange of Animals, 1915. Later Krogh took on studies of water and electrolyte homeostasis of aquatic animals and he published the books: Osmotic Regulation (1939) and Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanisms (1941). In addition Krogh contributed more than 200 research articles in international journals. He was a constructor of scientific instruments of which several had considerable practical importance, e.g. the spirometer and the apparatus for measuring basal metabolic rate.

Krogh brought insulin to Denmark shortly after its discovery in 1922 by Banting and Best in Toronto. Together with Hagedorn, Krogh made decisive contributions to establishing a Danish production of insulin by ethanol extraction of the hormone from the pancreatic glands of pigs.

Much of Krogh's work was carried out in collaboration with his wife, Marie Krogh (1874-1943), a renowned scientist in her own right.

In 1910 August Krogh founded the first laboratory for animal physiology (zoophysiology) at the University of Copenhagen. It was located in a small townhouse in central Copenhagen (at Ny Vestergade 11). The laboratory was considerably enlarged in 1928, when it moved to a new building at Juliane Maries Vej 28-32 called The Rockefeller Complex(it was financed by the Rockefeller Foundation). The building also gave place to the institutes of medical physiology and biophysics, and to the institute for the theory of gymnastics (exercise physiology). Today, the disciplines of animal physiology, exercise physiology, and some of the biochemical subdisciplines under the Faculty of Science are based at the August Krogh Institute, a building inaugurated in 1970.

Torkel Weis-Fogh, an eminent pioneer on the study of insect flight, was a student of August Krogh's.

(description partly taken from Copenhagen University)

References

  • Larsen, Erik Hviid (2007). "[August Krogh (1874-1949): 1920 Nobel Prize]". Ugeskr. Laeg. 169 (35): 2878.
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  • Larsen, E H (2001). "[August Krogh and the laboratory of animal physiology situated at Ny Vestergade 11]". Ugeskr. Laeg. 163 (51): 7240–8.
  • Kardel, T (1999). "[About the seven little devils who changed physiology. August and Marie Krogh on pulmonary gas exchange]". Ugeskr. Laeg. 161 (51): 7112–6.
  • Schmidt-Nielsen, B (1984). "August and Marie Krogh and respiratory physiology". Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 57 (2): 293–303.
  • Krebs, H A (1975). "The August Krogh Principle: "For many problems there is an animal on which it can be most conveniently studied"". J. Exp. Zool. 194 (1): 221–6.
  • Poulsen, J E (1975). "The impact of August Krogh on the insulin treatment of diabetes and our present status". Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 578 7–14.
  • Dejours, P (1975). "August Krogh and the physiology of respiration". Scandinavian journal of respiratory diseases 56 (6): 337–46.
  • Sulek, K (1967). "[Nobel prize for August Krogh in 1920 for his discovery of regulative mechanism in the capillaries]". Wiad. Lek. 20 (19): 1829.
  • , (1967). "August Krogh (1874-1949) the physiologist's physiologist". JAMA 199 (7): 496–7.
  • KENEZ, J (1965). "[The Capillaries And Krogh.]". Orvosi hetilap 106 177–8.
  • REHBERG, P B (1951). "August Krogh, November 15, 1874-September 13, 1949". The Yale journal of biology and medicine 24 (2): 83–102.
  • DRINKER, C K (1950). "August Krogh: 1874-1949". Science 112 (2900): 105–7.
  • LILJESTRAND, G (1950). "Krogh, August". Acta Physiol. Scand. 20 (2-3): 109–16.
  • (1950). "[Deaths of C. M. Wenyon, Clifford Dobell and A. Krogh.]". C. R. Seances Soc. Biol. Fil. 144 (3-4): 160–1.

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