A variation of bashlyks is a Kalpak (Qalpaq), a cone-shaped headdress without lappets, mostly made of leather, felt or wool, as depicted in the Repin's painting below. "Kalpak" is also a component of the ethnic name "Kara-Kalpak" (literally "a black kalpak" in Turkic), known from the history of the medieval Eastern Europe, and from the modern Karakalpak autonomous republic in the western Syr Darya - Amu Darya interfluve in Uzbekistan, north of the ancient Balkh.
In modern times, bashlyks became fashionable in Russia in 1830-1840, after the Napoleonic War with significant participation of the Bashqort cavalry. By the 1862 bashlyks were made a uniform headdress in Cossack armies, and later in other branches of Russian armed forces. The military bashlyk was bright yellow camel wool, with a yellow band. Officer bashlyks had gold or silver band. In Russian army bashlyks lasted till 1917, when they became a trademark of Red Army uniform.