Samuel

Samuel

[sam-yoo-uhl]
Crompton, Samuel, 1753-1827, English inventor of the mule spinner, or muslin wheel, an important step in the development of fine cotton spinning. Working as a young man in a spinning mill, he knew the defects of the Hargreaves jenny and determined to produce something better. After five years of secret work, he perfected (1779) a machine that combined the features of the jenny and Arkwright's frame and that, in one operation, by drawing, twisting, and winding the cotton, produced a very fine yarn. Crompton, however, was too poor to obtain a patent for his invention and sold his rights for £60. Later Parliament granted him £5,000.
Nicholson, Samuel, 1743-1811, American naval officer, b. Maryland. The brother of James Nicholson, he served in the Continental navy during the American Revolution, making many successful captures. He was commissioned (1794) captain in the new U.S. navy, superintended the construction of the Constitution, and on her completion in 1798 (at the time of American-French difficulties) cruised the Atlantic in search of French ships.
Plimsoll, Samuel, 1824-98, English reformer. Plimsoll was particularly interested in the welfare of sailors. As a member of Parliament (1868-80) he secured legislation limiting the loading of ships. It required that a line be painted on the sides of all British merchant vessels to show the limit of submergence allowed by law. This line has come to be known as the Plimsoll mark or Plimsoll line. He wrote Our Seamen (1872).

See D. Masters, The Plimsoll Mark (1955).

Prescott, Samuel, 1751-c.1777, American Revolutionary figure, b. Concord, Mass. On the night of Apr. 18, 1775, he, Paul Revere, and William Dawes set out to warn the countryside of the British advance toward Concord. Revere was captured on the way, but Prescott got through with the news. He was later captured and died in prison.
Bowles, Samuel, 1797-1851, American newspaper editor, b. Hartford, Conn. He founded (1824) the Springfield (Mass.) Republican, a weekly. In 1844 it became a daily under the influence of his son, Samuel Bowles, 1826-78, b. Springfield, Mass., who had joined the Republican at 17.

At 25, when his father died, the son took control and soon made the Springfield Republican one of the half-dozen most influential newspapers in the United States. Bowles, by urging the union of all antislavery groups into a single national party, opened the way for the establishment of the Republican party in New England and became one of its most ardent members. He gave complete support to Lincoln and in the Reconstruction period opposed the legislation of the radicals and the carpetbaggers, in favor of milder measures. In later life he traveled a great deal and sent letters about his travels back to his paper. Those of his Western trip of 1865 were collected in Across the Continent (1865), and those of his sojourn in Colorado, 1868, in The Switzerland of America (1869).

See G. S. Merriam, Life and Times of Samuel Bowles (1885).

His son, Samuel Bowles, 1851-1915, b. Springfield, Mass., was the third of the family to edit the Republican. He maintained its high quality by close editorial direction, but did little writing himself.

Warren, Samuel, 1807-77, English lawyer and author. He wrote many legal texts, Passages from the Diary of a Late Physician (1832), and the extremely popular novel Ten Thousand a Year (1841).
Longfellow, Samuel, 1819-92, American clergyman and hymn writer, b. Portland, Maine; brother and biographer of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He was a Unitarian pastor in Fall River, Mass., Brooklyn, N.Y., and Germantown, Pa. Among the four hymnals he compiled are Vespers (1859), containing his own Now on Land and Sea Descending, and Hymns of the Spirit (1864).
Huntington, Samuel, 1731-96, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Windham, Conn. He was a delegate (1775-84) to and president (1779-81) of the Continental Congress before serving as governor of Connecticut (1786-96).

See A. E. Waugh, Samuel Huntington and His Family (1968).

Green, Samuel, 1615-1702, early American printer. He established himself at Cambridge, Mass., in 1649, using a press owned by Henry Dunster, the first president of Harvard. Green succeeded Stephen Daye, who established the first printing plant in the colonies. The press that was sent to the colony in 1654 by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England was given to Green. He used it to produce his most famous imprints, John Eliot's Indian tracts and the Indian Bible. His imprints number nearly 300, among them editions of the Bay Psalm Book and The Book of the General Lawes and Libertyes. Green continued in business until 1692, and was succeeded by his son Bartholomew Green (1666-1732), printer and publisher of the Boston News-Letter (1704-07 and 1711-32).
Samuel, Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount, 1870-1963, British statesman. Entering Parliament as a Liberal in 1902, he was postmaster general (1910-14, 1915-16) and home secretary (1916). He lost his seat in Parliament in 1918 but served as first British high commissioner in Palestine (1920-25) and chairman of the royal commission of inquiry into the coal industry (1925-26). He played an important role in negotiating an end to the general strike of 1926. In the Commons again (1929-35), Samuel was home secretary (1931-32) and leader of the Liberal party (1931-35). He was created a peer in 1937. Samuel's writings include Practical Ethics (1935), Belief and Action: An Everyday Philosophy (1937), and In Search of Reality (1957).

See his memoirs (1945).

Samuel, two books of the Bible, originally a single work, called First and Second Samuel in modern Bibles, and First and Second Kingdoms in the Septuagint. They are considered part of "Deuteronomistic history," in which the book of Deuteronomy functions as the interpretive key for understanding Hebrew history. The books cover the careers of Samuel, Saul, and David (roughly the 11th cent. B.C.), as follows: first, Samuel's career and judgeship; second, the establishment of the Hebrew monarchy, with the anointing and subsequent success of Saul, followed by the anointing of David and the bitter rivalry between David and Saul; third, the reign of David, first at Hebron, then at Jerusalem; and, fourth, an appendix of various, unordered materials. Scholars have detected two main strands in the composition of the book, based on divergent attitudes toward the monarchical establishment. In both the books of Samuel and of Kings, the prophets represent the claim of the divine over human kingship. One section is said to be written by a contemporary of David, making it the oldest piece of Bible narrative. The prophet Samuel, fl. 1050 B.C., was the last judge of Israel and the first of the prophets after Moses. The circumstances of his birth, childhood, and vocation are told at the beginning of First Samuel. His judgeship was dominated by war with the Philistines, who captured the Ark of the Covenant. In his old age he agreed, at divine request, to the establishment of a king; he thus anointed Saul and remained chief prophet during Saul's reign. In this role he anointed David, and after dying, appeared to Saul at Endor. Samuel became a national hero and eventually a popular figure of Jewish legend.

See studies by P. K. McCarter (1980, 1984), J. Baldwin (1988), and W. Brueggemann (1990); R. Alter, The David Story (1999). See also bibliography under Old Testament.

Guthrie, Samuel, 1782-1848, American physician, b. Brimfield, Mass. In Sackets Harbor, N.Y., where he settled after serving as surgeon in the War of 1812, he invented a percussion powder and a punch lock for exploding it, thus making obsolete the flintlock musket. In 1831 he discovered chloroform, anticipating by a few months its discovery by Eugène Soubeiran in France and Justus von Liebig in Germany.
Alexander, Samuel, 1859-1938, British philosopher, b. Australia. From 1893 to 1924 he was professor of philosophy at Victoria Univ., Manchester. Strongly influenced by the theory of evolution, Alexander conceived of the world as a single cosmic process in which higher forms of being emerge periodically. The basic principle of this process is space-time, and the result is God. His works include Space, Time, and Deity (1920), Spinoza and Time (1921), Art and the Material (1925), and Beauty and Other Forms of Value (1933).

See studies by S. R. Dasgupta (1965) and M. Weinstein (1984).

Adams, Samuel, 1722-1803, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Boston, Mass.; second cousin of John Adams. An unsuccessful businessman, he became interested in politics and was a member (1765-74) and clerk (1766-74) of the lower house of the Massachusetts legislature. As colonial resistance to British laws stiffened, Adams spoke for the discontented and replaced James Otis as leader of the extremists. He drafted a protest against the Stamp Act in 1765 and was one of the organizers of the non-importation agreement (1767) against Great Britain to force repeal of the Townshend Acts. He drew up the Circular Letter to the other colonies, denouncing the acts as taxation without representation. More important, he used his able pen in colonial newspapers and pamphlets to stir up sentiment against the British. His polemics helped to bring about the Boston Massacre. With the help of such men as John Hancock he organized the revolutionary Sons of Liberty and helped to foment revolt through the Committees of Correspondence. He was the moving spirit in the Boston Tea Party. Gen. Thomas Gage issued (1775) a warrant for the arrest of Adams and Hancock, but they escaped punishment and continued to stir up lethargic patriots. Samuel Adams was a member (1774-81) of the Continental Congress, but after independence was declared his influence declined; the "radical" was replaced by more conservative leaders, who tended to look upon Adams as an irresponsible agitator. He later served (1794-97) as governor of Massachusetts.

See writings ed. by H. A. Cushing (4 vol., 1904-08, repr. 1968); biographies by J. C. Miller (1936, repr. 1960), S. Beach (1965), W. V. Wells (2d ed. 1969), and N. B. Gerson (1973).

Ramey, Samuel, 1942-, American operatic bass, b. Colby, Kans. He studied music at Kansas State and Wichita State (grad. 1968) universities and debuted with the New York City Opera in Bizet's Carmen in 1973. Known for his rich, expressive voice and commanding stage presence, he garnered international acclaim with debuts in such European venues as Glyndebourne (1976), Hamburg (1978), and La Scala and Vienna (1981). He first appeared at New York's Metropolitan Opera in 1984 in Handel's Rinaldo. Ramey is noted for performing with equal skill in bel canto works requiring speed and flexibility and in dramatic parts demanding strength and power. He also is adept at portraying opera's demons and rogues, among them Mephistopholes in Gounot's Faust, the devil in Berlioz's Damnation of Faust, and the four villains in Offenbach's Tales of Hoffmann.
Hopkins, Samuel, 1721-1803, American clergyman and theologian, b. Waterbury, Conn., grad. Yale, 1741. He was a leading disciple of Jonathan Edwards, whose theology was the foundation for his own system, later known as Hopkinsianism. For 60 years Hopkins held pastorates at Great Barrington, Mass., and at Newport, R.I. His preaching, noninspirational and severely logical, was less influential than his writings, notably his System of Doctrines (1793). His views remained potent in American religious life until after the Civil War. Hopkins was one of the first New England ministers to denounce slavery and the slave trade.
Cooper, Samuel, 1609-72, one of the greatest English miniaturists. A student of Hoskins, he worked in London from c.1642. He painted portraits of numerous celebrated Englishmen. His draftsmanship and unusual use of lighting made his vellum-on-card head-and-shoulder paintings remarkable. Specimens of his work are to be found at Windsor Castle; in the collections of the duke of Buccleuch and the duke of Devonshire (the latter containing the famous portrait of Cromwell familiar through engravings); in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; in the Rijks Museum; and in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. His brother, Alexander Cooper, d. 1660, was for many years miniature painter at the court of Queen Christina of Sweden.
Richardson, Samuel, 1689-1761, English novelist, b. Derbyshire. When he was 50 and established as a prosperous printer, Richardson was asked to compose a guide to letter writing. The idea of introducing a central theme occurred to him, and he interrupted his task to write and publish his novel of morals in letter form, Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded (2 vol., 1740). The novel tells the story of a virtuous young maidservant who so successfully eludes the lecherous assaults of her employer's son that the young man finally marries her. The guide, known now as Familiar Letters, came out in 1741, just before Vol. III and IV of Pamela. Richardson wrote two more long, epistolary novels, Clarissa Harlowe (7 vol., 1747-48), the tragic story of a girl who runs off with her seducer, regarded today as his best work, and The History of Sir Charles Grandison (7 vol., 1753-54). All Richardson's novels were enormously popular in their day. Although he was a verbose and sentimental storyteller, his emphasis on detail, his psychological insights into women, and his dramatic technique have earned him a prominent place among English novelists.

See his correspondence, ed. by A. L. Barbauld (6 vol., 1804; repr. 1966); biographies by T. C. D. Eaves and B. D. Kimpel (1971) and J. Harris (1987); studies by J. W. Krutch (1930, repr. 1959), J. J. Carroll (1969), M. Kinkead-Weekes (1973), C. G. Wolff (1973), and W. B. Warner (1979), C. H. Flynn (1982), and M. Doody and P. Sabor, ed. (1989).

Untermyer, Samuel, 1858-1940, American lawyer and civic leader, b. Lynchburg, Va., grad. Columbia law school, 1878. He gained fame as a lawyer and took part in some of the country's most important litigation. He served as counsel to the congressional committee headed by Arsène Pujo that investigated (1912) money trusts, and to the Lockwood committee of the New York legislature, which probed (1921-22) statewide housing conditions. As special counsel until 1933 in the famous New York City transit suits, he helped maintain the five-cent subway fare. Untermyer was a staunch advocate of stock-market regulations, government ownership of railroads, and various legal reforms. A leading crusader against anti-Semitism, Untermyer was active in the movement to boycott Germany after Hitler rose to power.
Clarke, Samuel, 1675-1729, English philosopher and divine. His chief interest was rational theology, and, although a critic of the deists, he was in sympathy with some of their ideas. He supported the theories of Newton and argued with Leibniz in defense of the existence of absolute space. Clarke maintained that ethical law is as constant as mathematical law. His published works include many translations, lectures, sermons, and commentaries. The Leibniz correspondence was published in 1717.
Pufendorf, Samuel, Baron von, 1632-94, German jurist and historian. He is especially noted as an early theorist of international law. Educated in the works of Thomas Hobbes and Hugo Grotius, Pufendorf maintained that the law of nations is a branch of natural law, and that to treat it as positive law (i.e., law decreed by humans) is erroneous. His conception of natural law was based on the notion of humans as social animals, and he argued that each individual had the right to equality and freedom. The natural relations of nations (as of men) are peaceable, and war is justified only to punish an infraction of international law after attempts at pacific redress have failed. He supported the right of the state power over any ecclesiastical claim for secular authority, and his work on this subject became the foundation of church and state relations in 18th-century Germany. These views are developed in his Elementa jurisprudentiae universalis [elements of universal jurisprudence] (1661), De jure naturae et gentium [on the law of nature and of nations] (1672), and in De habitu religionis Christianae ad vitam civilem [of the power of the Christian religion in relation to the life of a citizen] (1687). His chief historical work was De statu imperii Germanici [on the condition of the German Empire] (1667), in which he described Germany as a monstrous aggregate lacking a strong imperial power. Pufendorf taught jurisprudence at the universities of Heidelberg (1661-68) and Lund, in Sweden (1668-77). In his later years, he served as royal historiographer at Stockholm and Berlin.
Purchas, Samuel, 1577?-1626, English clergyman and compiler of travel literature, b. Essex. Chaplain to the archbishop of Canterbury, he later was rector of St. Martin's Church, London. His first book, Purchas His Pilgrimage (1613), was designed as a survey of peoples and religions of the world. Its success led to his most famous compilation of travel literature, Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas His Pilgrims (4 vol., 1625) for which he used the papers of Richard Hakluyt, East India Company records, and many manuscripts he had collected, which have since been lost.

See selections by H. G. Rawlinson (1931) and C. Wild (1939).

Beckett, Samuel, 1906-89, Anglo-French playwright and novelist, b. Dublin. Beckett studied and taught in Paris before settling there permanently in 1937. He wrote primarily in French, frequently translating his works into English himself. His first published novel, Murphy (1938), typifies his later works by eliminating the traditional elements of plot, character, and setting. Instead, he presents the experience of waiting and struggling with a pervading sense of futility. The anguish of persisting in a meaningless world is intensified in Beckett's subsequent novels including Watt (1942-44); the trilogy Molloy (1951), Malone Dies (1951), and The Unnamable (1953); How It Is (1961); and The Lost Ones (1972). In his theater of the absurd, Beckett combined poignant humor with an overwhelming sense of anguish and loss. Best known and most controversial of his dramas are Waiting for Godot (1952) and Endgame (1957), which have been performed throughout the world. Beckett was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature.

Beckett's other works include a major study of Proust (1931); the plays Krapp's Last Tape (1959) and Happy Days (1961); a screenplay, Film (1969); short stories, Breath (1966) and Lessness (1970); collected shorter prose in Stories and Texts for Nothing (tr. 1967), No's Knife (1967), and The Complete Short Prose: 1929-1989 (1996, ed. by S. E. Gontarski); volumes of collected writings, More Pricks than Kicks (1970) and First Love and Other Shorts (1974); and Poems (1963). His Collected Works (16 vol.) was published in 1970 and a comprehensive centenary edition (5 vol.) was published in 2006. Beckett's first works of fiction and drama were both published posthumously, the novel Dream of Fair to Middling Women (1932) in 1992 and the play Eleuthéria (1947) in 1995.

See M. D. Fehsenfeld and L. M. Overbeck, ed., The Letters of Samuel Beckett, Vol. I (2009); J. and E. Knowlson, Beckett Remembering/Remembering Beckett: A Centenary Celebration (2006); memoir by A. Atik (2006); biographies by D. Bair (1980), J. Knowlson (1996), and A. Cronin (1997); studies by H. Kenner (1968 and 1973), R. Cohn (1972 and 1973), S. Connor (1986), P. Gidal (1986), R. Pountney (1988), L. Gordon (1996), J. D. O'Hara (1998), and A Uhlmann and S. E. Gontarski, ed. (2006).

Palmer, Samuel, 1805-81, English landscape watercolorist, etcher, and mystic. Under the influence of William Blake he produced in sepia a series of remarkable visionary drawings of moonlit landscapes. Palmer is also known for his Italian and English landscapes in watercolor, his illustrations of Spenser and Milton, his translations of Vergil's Eclogues, and his etchings. He is represented in the National Gallery and the Victoria and Albert Museum, both in London.

See study by R. Lister (1969).

Johnson, Samuel, 1696-1772, American clergyman, educator, and philosopher, b. Guilford, Conn., grad. Collegiate School (now Yale), 1714; father of William Samuel Johnson. He became a Congregationalist minister, but in 1722 joined the Church of England. In 1724 he opened the first Anglican church in Connecticut at Stratford, remaining its minister until 1754, when he became the first president of an Anglican institution, King's College (now Columbia), in New York City. He resigned in 1763 to return to Stratford. A friend and correspondent of the English philosopher George Berkeley, Johnson became the principal exponent in America of Berkeleian idealism. His chief work was Ethica (1746), republished in an enlarged edition by Benjamin Franklin as Elementa Philosophica (1752).

See H. and C. Schneider, ed., Samuel Johnson … His Career and His Writings (4 vol., 1929, repr. 1972); B. Redford, ed., The Letters of Samuel Johnson (2 vol., 1994); biography by E. L. Pennington (1938); study by J. J. Ellis (1973).

Johnson, Samuel, 1709-84, English author, b. Lichfield. The leading literary scholar and critic of his time, Johnson helped to shape and define the Augustan Age. He was equally celebrated for his brilliant and witty conversation. His rather gross appearance and manners were viewed tolerantly, if not with a certain admiration.

Early Life and Works

The son of a bookseller, Johnson excelled at school in spite of illness (he suffered the effects of scrofula throughout his life) and poverty. He entered Oxford in 1728 but was forced to leave after a year for lack of funds. He sustained himself as a bookseller and schoolmaster for the next six years, during which he continued his wide reading and published some translations. In 1735 he married Elizabeth Porter, a widow 20 years his senior, and remained devoted to her until her death in 1752.

Johnson settled in London in 1737 and began his literary career in earnest. At first he wrote primarily for Edward Cave's Gentleman's Magazine—poetry and prose on subjects literary and political. His poem "London," published anonymously in 1738, was praised by Pope and won Johnson recognition in literary circles. His Life of Savage (1744) is a bitter portrait of corruption in London and the miseries endured by writers. Also of note are his long poem The Vanity of Human Wishes (1749) and his essays in the periodical The Rambler (1750-52).

Later Life and Works

Johnson's first work of lasting importance, and the one that permanently established his reputation in his own time, was his Dictionary of the English Language (1755), the first comprehensive lexicographical work on English ever undertaken. Rasselas, a moral romance, appeared in 1759, and The Idler, a collection of his essays, in 1761. Although Johnson enjoyed great literary acclaim, he remained close to poverty until a government pension was granted to him in 1762. The following year was marked by his meeting with James Boswell, whose famous biography presents Johnson in exhaustive and fascinating detail, often recreating his conversations verbatim.

In 1764 Johnson and Joshua Reynolds founded "The Club" (known later as The Literary Club). Its membership included Oliver Goldsmith, Edmund Burke, David Garrick, and Boswell. The brilliance of this intellectual elite was, reportedly, dazzling, and Dr. Johnson (he had received a degree in 1764) was its leading light. His witty remarks are remembered to this day. He was a master not only of the aphorism—e.g., his definition of angling as "a stick and a string, with a worm on one end and a fool on the other"—but also of the quick, unexpected retort, as when, while listening with displeasure to a violinist, he was told that the feat being performed was very difficult: "Difficult," replied Johnson, "I wish it had been impossible!"

In 1765 Johnson met Henry and Hester Thrale, whose friendship and hospitality he enjoyed until Thrale's death and Mrs. Thrale's remarriage. In that same year Johnson's long-heralded edition of Shakespeare appeared. Its editorial principles served as a model for future editions, and its preface and critical notes are still highly valued. In the 1770s Johnson wrote a series of Tory pamphlets. His political conservatism was based upon a profound skepticism as to the perfectibility of human nature. Although personally generous and compassionate, he held that a strict social order is necessary to save humanity from itself.

In 1773 he toured the Hebrides with Boswell and published his account of the tour in 1775. Johnson's Lives of the Poets (1779-1781), his last major work, comprises ten small volumes of acute criticism, characterized, as is all of Johnson's work, by both classical values and sensitive perception. Dr. Johnson, as he is universally known, was England's first full-dress man of letters, and his mind and personality helped to create the traditions that have guided English taste and criticism.

Bibliography

Besides the classic biography by Boswell, see biographies by Sir John Hawkins (1787; ed. by B. Davis, 1961; ed. by O. M. Brack, Jr., 2009), J. W. Krutch (1944), J. L. Clifford (1955), W. J. Bate (1977), D. Greene (updated ed. 1989), R. DeMaria, Jr. (1993), P. Martin (2008), J. Meyers (2008), and D. Nokes (2009); critical studies by W. J. Bate (1955), R. B. Schwartz (1971), P. Quennell (1973), J. T. Boulton, ed. (1978), P. Fussell (1986), N. Hudson (1988), D. Greene (2d ed., 1990), and G. S. Gross (1992); H. Hitchings, Defining the World (2005); R. DeMaria, Jr., and G. J. Kolb, ed., Johnson on the English Language (2005); J. L. Clifford, Johnsonian Studies, 1887-1950 (1951; supplement, 1962); J. L. Clifford and D. J. Greene, A Survey and Bibliography of Critical Studies (1970); D. Greene and J. A. Vance, Bibliography of Johnsonian Studies, 1970-1985 (1987); J. Lynch, Bibliography of Johnsonian Studies, 1986-1998 (2000).

Johnston, Samuel, 1733-1816, political leader in the American Revolution, b. Dundee, Scotland. He emigrated as a child to North Carolina, where his uncle, Gabriel Johnston, was royal governor. After being admitted to the bar, he was a member of the colonial assembly (1759-75) and of its standing Committee of Correspondence after 1773. He was elected to the four provincial congresses (1774-76), presiding at the third and at the fourth, which passed the Halifax Resolves declaring for independence of the colonies; served in the new state senate; and represented North Carolina in the Continental Congress (1780-82). Johnston was governor of North Carolina (1787-89) and presided over the convention that rejected the U.S. Constitution (1788) and over the one (1789) at which North Carolina finally ratified it. He was one of the state's first U.S. Senators (1789-93), a judge of the superior court (1800-1803), and one of the first trustees of the Univ. of North Carolina.
Fraunces, Samuel, c.1722-95, American innkeeper, proprietor of the historic Fraunces Tavern in New York City. This building at the corner of Broad and Pearl streets was the De Lancey mansion before Fraunces purchased it in 1762 and opened it as the Queen's Head Tavern. It became famous for its wines and food and was a gathering place for the Sons of Liberty and other organizations before the American Revolution and for British officers during their occupation of the city. Fraunces himself was a patriot, and his tavern was the center of the celebration on the occasion of the British evacuation of New York. In its Long Room, George Washington bade farewell (1783) to his officers. Fraunces sold the tavern in 1785. When Washington returned (1789) to New York as president, Fraunces became steward of his household, maintaining that position even after Philadelphia was made the capital. The tavern, extensively restored after a devastating 1900 fire, is now owned by the Sons of the Revolution (not the Sons of the American Revolution). For many years it was open to the public as a restaurant, and it continues to house many historical objects and documents.
Fallows, Samuel, 1835-1922, American clergyman, bishop of the Reformed Episcopal Church, b. England, grad. Univ. of Wisconsin, 1859. He served with the Union army in the Civil War and afterward held Methodist pastorates in Milwaukee. In 1875 he joined the Reformed Episcopal Church, a dissident sect that had broken away from the Episcopal Church. He became a bishop in 1876. He was known as a leader who directed public improvement in education, in prison reform, and in the fight for temperance.

See biography by A. K. Fallows, Everybody's Bishop (1927).

Lover, Samuel, 1797-1868, Irish painter, novelist, and songwriter. Before turning to literature, Lover was a painter, and in 1828 he became a member of the Royal Hibernian Academy of Art. However, he is best known for his ballad Rory O'More (1836), which he expanded into a novel and a play (both appeared in 1837), and for Handy Andy (1842), a farcical novel of Irish life. His other works include Legends and Stories of Ireland (1831), which he illustrated, and Songs and Ballads (1839).
Rutherford, Samuel, 1600-1661, Scottish clergyman. His Exercitationes apologeticae pro divina gratia (1636), urging a Calvinist view of grace against Arminianism (see under Arminius, Jacobus), caused his suspension from his living at Anwoth on the charge of nonconformity to the Acts of Episcopacy. Banished to Aberdeen until the National Covenant was drawn up in 1638, he then was made professor of divinity at St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, and rector of the university in 1651. In 1643 he was chosen a commissioner from Scotland to the Westminster Assembly, and was attacked by name in John Milton's sonnet "On the New Forcers of Conscience under the Long Parliament." His Lex Rex (1644) brought him wide attention as a political theorist; it was burned by the public hangman after the Restoration, and Rutherford was removed from his official positions and summoned (1661) by Parliament on a charge of treason. He died before he could be tried. Rutherford's letters, first published as Joshua Redivivus (1664), edited by A. A. Bonar with a life (2 vol., 1863), have passed through a number of editions.
Vetch, Samuel, 1668-1732, British soldier and colonial administrator, b. Scotland. He settled in Albany, N.Y., in 1699 and became a trader with the Native Americans. Author of a plan to capture French Canada, he was empowered (1709) by the British government to raise troops for the attack. He was adjutant general of the expedition that captured (1710) Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal, N. S.) and became military governor (1710-13) and civil governor (1715-17) of the conquered territory.
Hearne, Samuel, 1745-92, British fur trader, explorer in N Canada. He entered the British navy at the age of 11 and saw service in the naval battles of the Seven Years War. In 1766 he was hired by the Hudson's Bay Company, and he was mate of the sloop Churchill, serving at and about Fort Prince of Wales (now Fort Churchill) until 1768, when he became mate of the brigantine Charlotte. In 1769 he was chosen to head a land expedition to the north to investigate native reports of a great river and large copper mines. His first two attempts met with failure, but finally in Dec., 1770, guided by a Chipewyan, he set off on the third and successful expedition, which took him across the barren grounds to the Coppermine River and down to its mouth. He came back by Great Slave Lake and arrived at Fort Prince of Wales on June 30, 1772. Although the copper mines proved disappointing, the trip was of great importance. In spite of his inaccurate geographical data, Hearne opened up an unknown territory. He gave an accurate and valuable account of the Chipewyan, and he proved that there was no short Northwest Passage. In June, 1774, Hearne set out from York Factory and established Cumberland House for the Saskatchewan trade, the first inland post of the Hudson's Bay Company. He returned in 1775 and set off immediately again for the west but was recalled to Fort Prince of Wales, where he was put in charge until the French captured the fort in 1782. Hearne made his way to England, but returned to Canada in 1783, where he remained until 1787. His Journey from Prince of Wales Fort on Hudson's Bay to the Northern Ocean appeared in 1795.

See the Champlain Society editions of that work (ed. by J. B. Tyrrell, 1911) and of his later journals (ed. by J. B. Tyrrell, 1934, repr. 1968). See also selections from his Journey (ed. by F. Mowat, 1958, repr. 1968); A. Laut, Pathfinders of the West (1904, repr. 1969); G. Speck, Samuel Hearne and the Northwest Passage (1963).

Seabury, Samuel, 1729-96, American clergyman, first bishop of the Episcopal Church, b. Connecticut, grad. Yale, 1748. He studied medicine at the Univ. of Edinburgh, then turned to theology and was ordained (1753) a priest in the Church of England before returning to America as a missionary in New Brunswick, N.J. He was then rector at Jamaica (Long Island) and in Westchester co., New York, until 1775. He then avowed himself a Loyalist in the American Revolution, and for a time he had to practice medicine in New York City, which was under British occupation. He later became (1778) a chaplain to a royal regiment. After the war he was chosen bishop of Connecticut in 1783. The English bishops withheld consecration because of a legal difficulty, but in 1784 he was consecrated at Aberdeen by bishops of the Scottish Episcopal Church. In 1789 the General Convention of the Episcopal Church in the United States confirmed his position and he became presiding bishop.

See biographies by H. Thoms (1963), B. E. Steiner (1972), H. Mitgang (1979), and A. Rowthorn (1983).

Seabury, Samuel, 1873-1958, American jurist, b. New York City; great-great-grandson of Samuel Seabury (1729-96). He served on the supreme court (1907-14) and on the court of appeals (1914-16) of New York state. He became nationally prominent when he headed (1930-31) investigations of New York City's magistrate courts and the city's politics. As a result of these investigations, Mayor James Walker resigned in 1932. The Tammany faction was defeated in the ensuing elections by Fiorello LaGuardia, whom Seabury had supported. He wrote The New Federalism (1950).

See H. Mitgang, The Man Who Rode the Tiger (1970) and Once upon a Time in New York (2000).

Horsley, Samuel, 1733-1806, English prelate, noted as a scientist. He became bishop of St. David's in 1788, of Rochester in 1793, and of St. Asaph in 1802. Science was the field in which he first became widely known. In 1767 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, of which he was for many years a secretary. Horsley completed an edition of Sir Isaac Newton's works in 1785, but he is particularly remembered for the controversy (1783-90) with Joseph Priestly concerning the doctrine of Christ's incarnation, in which Horsley defended the orthodox view. His books include mathematical and theological works.
Houston, Samuel, 1793-1863, American frontier hero and statesman of Texas, b. near Lexington, Va.

Early Life

He moved (c.1806) with his family to Tennessee and lived much of his youth with the Cherokee, by whom he was adopted. Serving (1814) in the Creek campaign under Andrew Jackson, he was seriously wounded (1814) while fighting bravely at the battle of Horseshoe Bend. He returned to Tennessee, was admitted (1818) to the bar, practiced law in Lebanon, Tenn., and held many state offices.

Tall, vigorous, and dramatic in speech and in action, Houston, like Jackson, captured the popular imagination. He was sent (1823, 1825) to the U.S. Congress as a Democrat. Elected (1827) governor of Tennessee, Houston seemed in 1829 to have a bright political future, with his reelection almost assured and the Democrats strengthening themselves in national politics. Suddenly, however, his wife, Eliza Allen Houston, left him, and he immediately resigned (1829) his governorship. He rejoined the Cherokee in what is now Oklahoma. There he lived with them as government post trader and as adviser, drinking heavily during much of this period.

The Texas Revolution

In 1833 Houston moved on through Arkansas to Texas. He had little to do with the preliminaries of the Texas Revolution, although he watched the struggle closely. He was a member of the convention that set up a provisional government in Texas and of the convention (1836) that declared Texas independent. He was made commander in chief of the revolutionary troops. After the surrender of the Alamo (Mar., 1836), Houston's army persistently retreated before the numerically superior forces of Santa Anna, and there was panic among Texas settlers and much criticism of Houston. He brilliantly redeemed himself at the battle of San Jacinto (Apr. 21, 1836), when by a surprise attack he decisively defeated the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna himself.

In Texas Politics

In 1836 Houston was elected the first president of the new Republic of Texas. The independence of Texas was recognized by the United States and other countries. Replaced (1838) by Mirabeau Lamar, Houston served as president again from 1841 to 1844, but during these years his government was perplexed by financial problems and by border troubles.

Texas was admitted to the Union in 1845, and Houston was one of the first to represent his state in the U.S. Senate. After serving 14 years in the Senate, he was defeated because of his uncompromising Unionism. Challenging his opponents and drawing upon his popularity, Houston was elected (1859) governor of Texas. The aged statesman preached preservation of the U.S. Constitution in the face of secession, but the tide was against him. After the people of Texas voted (Feb., 1861) to secede from the Union, Houston refused to join the Confederacy and was removed (Mar., 1861) from the governorship. He accepted the verdict, refused help from the North to defend his prerogative, and retired.

Bibliography

See Houston's writings (ed. by A. W. Williams and E. C. Barker, 8 vol., 1938-43); biographies by M. James (1929, repr. 1971), L. Friend (1954, repr. 1969), and M. K. Wisehart (1962).

Finley, Samuel, 1715-66, Presbyterian minister, president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), b. Ireland. He went to North America in 1734 and is believed to have studied under William Tennent. He preached in the series of religious revivals known as the Great Awakening, mainly in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In the early 1740s, Finley founded a school in Nottingham on the Pennsylvania-Maryland border (now the West Nottingham Academy). He became president of the College of New Jersey in 1761.
Chase, Samuel, 1741-1811, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1796-1811), b. Somerset co., Md. A lawyer, he participated in pre-Revolutionary activities and was a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses. In 1776 he was appointed, together with Benjamin Franklin and Charles Carroll of Carrollton, to win Canada over to the Revolutionary cause, but the plan failed. Chase helped to influence Maryland opinion to support independence from Great Britain. Although he opposed adoption of the U.S. Constitution, he later became a strong Federalist and President Washington appointed him (1796) to the U.S. Supreme Court. A series of brilliant and influential decisions established his leadership in the court until he was eclipsed by the rising genius of John Marshall. Chase was impeached (1804) by the U.S. House of Representatives for discrimination on the bench against Jeffersonians. Tried before the Senate (1805), he was found not guilty. This verdict discouraged further attempts to impeach justices for purely political reasons.
Kirkland, Samuel, 1741-1808, American missionary, b. Norwich, Conn. He visited the Oneida tribe in 1764 and in 1766 began living with them according to their customs, preaching to them, and becoming a valued counselor. Kirkland kept the Oneida loyal to the colonists throughout the American Revolution; after the war he assisted in making peace treaties with the Iroquois and in working out plans for their welfare. He again (1790-92) pacified the Six Nations when there was some danger of their joining the Ohio tribes in revolt. In 1793 he received—through the aid of Alexander Hamilton—a charter from New York state to found Hamilton Oneida Academy for the education of both white and Native American youths. Few Native Americans attended, however, and as Hamilton College it changed over to a regular curriculum.
Hahnemann, Samuel, 1755-1843, German physician, founder of homeopathy. He expounded his system in Organon of the Rational Art of Healing (1810, tr. 1913). He practiced in Leipzig, Köthen, and Paris and despite opposition, gained a large following.
Woodworth, Samuel, 1784-1842, American author, b. Scituate, Mass. He edited (1823-24) the New York Mirror and was author of the song "The Old Oaken Bucket." His comedy The Forest Rose (1825) was one of the most popular American plays before the Civil War.
Butler, Samuel, 1612-80, English poet and satirist. During the Puritan Revolution he served Sir Samuel Luke, a noted officer of Cromwell. After the restoration of Charles II, he wrote his famous mock-heroic poem Hudibras (pub. in 3 parts, 1663, 1664, 1678), an envenomed satire against the Puritans in which Luke was the model for the butt Sir Hudibras. He was also the author of other verse satires, some of them not published until the 20th cent.

See J. Wilders' edition of Hudibras (1967); biography by T. Penelhum (1985); studies by H. DeQuehen, ed. (1979) and T. L. Jeffers (1981).

Butler, Samuel, 1835-1902, English author. He was the son and grandson of eminent clergymen. In 1859, refusing to be ordained, he went to New Zealand, where he established a sheep farm and in a few years made a modest fortune. He returned to England in 1864 and devoted himself to a variety of interests, including art, music, biology, and literature. Besides exhibiting some of his paintings (1868-76) at the Royal Academy, he composed several works in collaboration with Henry Festings Jones, among them the Handelian Narcissus: A Dramatic Cantata (1888). His Erewhon, in which he satirized English social and economic injustices by describing a country in which manners and laws were the reverse of those in England, appeared in 1872. It brought Butler immediate literary fame. Erewhon Revisited was published in 1901. Butler opposed Darwin's explanation of evolution, finding it too mechanistic, and he expounded his own theories in Evolution Old and New (1879), Unconscious Memory (1880), and Luck or Cunning as the Main Means of Organic Modification? (1887). In his single novel, the autobiographical The Way of All Flesh (1903), he attacked the Victorian pattern of life, in particular the ecclesiastical environment in which he was reared. Brilliantly ironic and witty, The Way of All Flesh is ranked among the great English novels. Butler's notebooks were published in 1912.

See selections from the notebooks ed. by G. Keynes and B. Hill (1951). See also A. Sliver, ed., The Family Letters of Samuel Butler, 1841-1886 (1962); biographies by H. F. Jones (1921, repr. 1973), L. E. Holt (1964), and P. Henderson (1953, repr. 1967); study by W. G. Becker (1925, repr. 1964).

Bamford, Samuel, 1788-1872, English weaver, poet, and social reformer. Always sympathetic toward the working class, he was jailed in 1819 for his part in the Peterloo massacre. His dialect verses were popular among the Lancashire workers. Besides his poetry, Bamford is noted for Passages in the Life of a Radical (2 vol., 1840-43, repr. 1967).
Barber, Samuel, 1910-81, American composer, b. West Chester, Pa. Barber studied at the Curtis Institute of Music, Philadelphia. His music is lyrical and generally tonal; his later works are more chromatic and polytonal with striking contrapuntal elements. Among his outstanding works are a setting of Matthew Arnold's "Dover Beach" for voice and string quartet (1931); an overture to The School for Scandal (1931); Adagio for Strings (1936); two symphonies (1936, 1944); Capricorn Concerto for flute, oboe, and trumpet (1944) and a piano concerto (1962; Pulitzer Prize); a ballet, Medea (1946); Knoxville: Summer of 1915, for soprano and orchestra (1947), derived from a segment of James Agee's novel A Death in the Family; a modern oratorio, Prayers of Kierkegaard (1954); and two operas, Vanessa (1957; Pulitzer Prize) and Antony and Cleopatra (1966), commissioned to open the new Metropolitan Opera House.

See biography by N. Broder (1954).

Medary, Samuel, 1801-64, American journalist, b. Montgomery co., Pa. In Ohio after 1825, he edited the Ohio Sun at Bethel and later the Ohio Statesman at Columbus and was superintendent of public printing (1837-47). Medary, a leading Western Democrat, championed the annexation of Texas and Oregon. He was territorial governor of Minnesota (1857-58) and of Kansas (1858-60). He founded the Crisis (1860) in Columbus, Ohio. In the Civil War, as a Peace Democrat who opposed Lincoln's policies because they were destructive to the Union, he was bitterly hated by Union patriots, who wrecked his press in 1863.
Insull, Samuel, 1859-1938, American public utilities financier, b. London. He arrived in the United States in 1881 and was employed by Thomas A. Edison as a private secretary. He later became prominent in the management of the Edison industrial holdings. By 1907 he overcame competing public utilities companies in Chicago and soon controlled the city's transit system. After numerous mergers he expanded his operations throughout Illinois and into neighboring states. He eventually formed (1912) a mammoth interlocking directorate that operated over 300 steam plants, almost 200 hydroelectric generating plants, and numerous other power plants throughout the United States. His companies flourished in the 1920s, but in 1932 his empire collapsed. Insull went to Greece, then Turkey. Extradited (1934) to the United States, he faced fraud and embezzlement charges (1934-35) but was acquitted.

See studies by F. McDonald (1962) and J. F. Wasik (2006).

McIntire, Samuel, 1757-1811, American architect and woodcarver, b. Salem, Mass. He developed high skill as a joiner and housewright and in wood sculpture. McIntire's opportunities, both as builder and carver, came in designing houses for the shipowning aristocracy of Salem. In the interiors of these houses are beautiful carved cornices and mantelpieces, inspired by the elegant style of Robert Adam. McIntire's Salem works include the Pierce-Nichols, the Peabody-Silsbee, the Gardner-White-Pingree, and the Elias Haskett Derby residences. His public buildings are Assembly Hall, Hamilton Hall, Washington Hall, and the courthouse, all in Salem, of which the latter two no longer stand. In 1792, McIntire competed for the design of the Capitol at Washington. Among his works in sculpture are portrait busts of Governor Winthrop and Voltaire (both: American Antiquarian Society, Worcester).

See study by F. Kimball (1940); Samuel McIntire, a Bicentennial Symposium (ed. by B. W. Labaree, 1957).

Sewall, Samuel, 1652-1730, American colonial jurist, b. England. He was taken as a child to Newbury, Mass., and was graduated from Harvard in 1671. He became a minister but gave up the cloth to assume management of a printing press in Boston and entered upon a public career. He was elected (1683) to the general court and was a member of the council. As one of the judges who tried the Salem witchcraft cases in 1692, he shared responsibility for the condemnation of 19 persons. However, he became convinced of the error of these convictions and in 1697 in Old South Church, Boston, publicly accepted the "blame and shame" for them; thereafter he annually spent a day of repentance in fasting and prayer. Sewall served (1692-1728) as judge of the superior court of the colony, being chief justice during the last 10 years. His diary (3 vol., 1878-82; repr. 1973) is very revealing of the man and of the period.

See biographies by O. E. Winslow (1964), T. B. Strandness (1967), and E. LaPlante (2007); N. H. Chamberlain, Samuel Sewall and the World He Lived In (1897, repr. 1967).

Wilberforce, Samuel, 1805-73, English prelate; son of William Wilberforce. In 1845 he became bishop of Oxford. He did not support the Oxford movement; instead, he attempted to hold a middle course between the High Church and Low Church factions. As a signer of the remonstrance against the appointment of R. D. Hampden to the bishopric of Hereford and as a participant in other controversies, he was at times an unpopular figure, sometimes referred to by his detractors as "Soapy Sam." A man of oratorical powers and of marked administrative ability, Bishop Wilberforce greatly improved the organization of his diocese and was instrumental in restoring to the English church convocations some of their earlier ecclesiastical authority. In 1869 he was made bishop of Winchester. With his brother Robert he wrote a biography (1838) of his father; his work includes History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in America (1844).

See biographies by A. R. Ashwell and R. G. Wilberforce (3 vol., 1879) and S. Meacham (1970).

Cousins, Samuel, 1801-87, English mezzotint engraver. He is famous for his interpretations in mezzotint of the work of Sir Thomas Lawrence, but his plates, over 200 in number, also include reproductions of the work of Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir John Millais, and Sir Edwin Landseer.

See biography by A. Whitman (1904).

Birch, Samuel, 1813-85, English Egyptologist. He wrote a dictionary of hieroglyphics and translated the Book of the Dead.
Colt, Samuel, 1814-62, American inventor, b. Hartford, Conn. In 1835-36, he patented a revolving-breech pistol and founded at Paterson, N.J., the Patent Arms Company, which failed in 1842. An order for 1,000 revolvers from the U.S. government in 1847 in the Mexican War made possible the reestablishment of his business. He later built the Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company factory at Hartford. Colt also invented a submarine battery used in harbor defense and a submarine telegraph cable. His revolving-breech pistol became so popular that the word Colt was sometimes used as a generic term for the revolver.

See biography by W. B. Edwards (1953).

Goldwyn, Samuel, 1882-1974, American film producer, b. Warsaw, Poland. Goldwyn arrived in the United States in 1896, and with Jesse L. Lasky and Cecil B. De Mille he organized the Jesse Lasky Feature Photoplay Company, coproducing The Squaw Man (1913). In 1916 he formed the Goldwyn Pictures Corp., which later merged with Metro Pictures and the company organized by Louis B. Mayer to become Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. To promote superior screenwriting he founded Eminent Authors Pictures, Inc. (1919). Goldwyn later produced many major films independently, including Wuthering Heights (1939), Guys and Dolls (1955), and Porgy and Bess (1959). He won an Academy Award for The Best Years of Our Lives (1947).

See his Behind the Screen (1923); A. S. Berg, Goldwyn (1989); C. Easton, The Search for Samuel Goldwyn (1989).

Gompers, Samuel, 1850-1924, American labor leader, b. London. He emigrated to the United States with his parents in 1863. He worked as a cigar maker and in 1864 joined the local union, serving as its president from 1874 to 1881, when he helped to found the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions. It was reorganized in 1886 and became the American Federation of Labor, of which Gompers was first president and of which he remained president, except for the year 1895, until his death. He directed the successful battle with the Knights of Labor for supremacy, kept the union free from political entanglements in the early days, and refused to entertain various cooperative business plans, socialistic ideas, and radical programs, maintaining that more wages, shorter hours, and greater freedom were the just aims of labor. He came to be recognized as the leading spokesman for the labor movement, and his pronouncements carried much weight. During World War I, he organized and headed the War Committee on Labor; and as a member of the Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense, he helped to hold organized labor loyal to the government program. A man of great personal integrity, he did much to make organized labor respected. See American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations.

See his autobiography, Seventy Years of Life and Labor (1925, repr. 1967); the Samuel Gompers Papers (ed. by S. B. Kaufman, 2 vol., 1986-87); biographies by W. Chasan (1971) and G. E. Stearn, ed. (1971); L. S. Reed, The Labor Philosophy of Samuel Gompers (1930, repr. 1966); F. C. Thorne, Samuel Gompers, American Statesman (1957, repr. 1969); S. B. Kaufman, Samuel Gompers and the Origins of the American Federation of Labor, 1848-1896 (1973).

Gorton, Samuel, c.1592-1677, Anglo-American religious leader, founder of Warwick, R.I., b. near Manchester, England. Seeking religious freedom, he emigrated to America (1637) but, because of his unorthodox religious teachings, was banished successively from Boston and Plymouth. At Portsmouth, R.I., he joined Anne Hutchinson in ousting William Coddington (1639) but on Coddington's return to power was himself turned out. In 1642, Gorton bought Native American land south of Providence and founded Shawomet. Massachusetts authorities, with designs on that territory, jailed him (1643) for holding erroneous religious opinions. The earl of Warwick finally obtained for Gorton freedom from molestation on his land, which he renamed (1648) Warwick and on which he preached to colonists and Native Americans. His followers called themselves "Gortonites" for many decades after his death. His tenets included denial of the Trinity, denial of actual heaven and hell, and a belief that every man should be his own intercessor.
Brady, Samuel, 1758-95, American frontiersman. He fought in several battles of the American Revolution but earned his name as a scout in the Ohio country under Daniel Brodhead and Anthony Wayne. His exploits were the subject of much frontier legend.
Brannan, Samuel, 1819-89, California pioneer, b. Saco, Maine. Converted to Mormonism, he edited a Mormon paper in New York City before leading a party of Mormons by sea from New York to California. In 1847 he founded the first newspaper in San Francisco, the California Star. Later he began a merchandising business at Sutter's Fort and soon gained extensive landholdings. Returning to San Francisco, he was active in the move to bring order to the lawless city and was an organizer and the first president (1851) of the Committee of Vigilance.

See biographies by P. D. Bailey (1943, rev. ed. 1953, repr. 1959) and L. J. Stellman (1953).

Rogers, Samuel, 1763-1855, English poet. Independently wealthy, he owned a beautiful home on St. James Street, Westminster, which became the center of literary society. He was famous for his conversation and numbered Byron, Lamb, and Wordsworth among his friends. His poetry, which includes Pleasures of Memory (1792), Jacqueline (1814), and Italy (2 vol., 1822-28), is graceful but undistinguished. He also wrote Table Talk (1856) and Recollections (1859).
Provoost, Samuel, 1742-1815, first Episcopal bishop of New York, b. New York City, grad. King's College (now Columbia Univ.), 1758. He studied at Cambridge and in 1766 was ordained. He was appointed assistant minister of Trinity parish in New York City. Because of his sympathy with the colonial cause, Provoost was forced (1771) to resign from Trinity but returned as rector in 1784. Created bishop of New York (1786), he was consecrated (1787) in England. He served as chaplain to the Continental Congress (1785) and to the U.S. Senate (1789).

See J. G. Wilson, Samuel Provoost (1887).

Pepys, Samuel, 1633-1703, English public official, and celebrated diarist, b. London, grad. Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1653. In 1656 he entered the service of a relative, Sir Edward Montagu (later earl of Sandwich), whose secretary he became in 1660. That same year he started as a clerk in the navy office and by 1668 he was an important naval official and owned a considerable estate. In 1672 he was made secretary to the admiralty. He sat in the Parliament of 1679, but he was charged with betraying naval secrets to the French in the same year. He was briefly imprisoned in the Tower but was vindicated and freed in 1680. In 1684 Pepys was reappointed secretary to the admiralty and was made president of the Royal Society. The accession of William III forced him into retirement, where he wrote his Memoirs … of the Royal Navy (1690).

Pepys left his valuable library, including his diary in cipher, to his nephew John Jackson and in turn to Magdalene College, Cambridge. His diary was discovered there in 1728 and nearly a century later was partially deciphered and first published (1825). An almost full text was edited by H. B. Wheatley (10 vol., 1893-99), but a complete edition did not appear until after World War II. One of the most famous diaries of all time, an intimate record of the daily life and reflections of an ambitious, observing, and lusty young man, it extends from Jan. 1, 1660, to May 31, 1669, when failing eyesight forced him to stop writing. Pepys's diary gives a graphic picture of the social life and conditions of the early Restoration period, including eyewitness accounts of the great plague (1665) and the great fire of London (1666).

See the diary (new ed. by R. Latham and W. Matthews, 10 vol., 1970-83) and the abridgment of the diary (ed. by O. F. Morshead, 1960); Pepys's letters (ed. by H. T. Heath, 1955); biography by C. Tomalin (2002); studies by P. Hunt (1958), C. Emden (1963), O. A. Mendelsohn (1963), M. H. Nicolson (1965), I. E. Taylor (1967), R. Barber (1972).

Daniel, Samuel, 1562?-1619, English poet and historian. He was tutor to William Herbert, 3d earl of Pembroke, and later to Lady Anne Clifford. Eventually he found favor with James I, and in 1603 he was appointed inspector of the Children of the Queen's Revels (a company of boy actors), a position he held for the rest of his life. Daniel is known chiefly for Delia (1592), a collection of sonnets. His other poetry includes a narrative, The Complaint of Rosamund (1592), and a defense of learning, Musophilus (1599). Besides being the author of numerous court masques, he wrote two Senecan tragedies, Cleopatra (1594) and Philotas (1605). His ardent patriotism and his belief in a strong and absolute monarchy inspired his epic, The Civil Wars between the Two Houses of Lancaster and York (1595, enl. ed. 1609). Defence of Rhyme (1603?) and a History of England (1631) are his major prose works. He was much admired by the 19th-century English romantics for his purity of diction.

See study by C. Seronsy (1967).

Davies, Samuel, 1723-61, American Presbyterian clergyman, b. New Castle co., Del. Ordained as an evangelist, he went in 1747 to Hanover co., Va., where he was soon the center of a revival that became part of the movement known as the Great Awakening. He went with Gilbert Tennent to England and Scotland in 1753 to raise funds for the support of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) and was its president from 1759 to 1761.
Slater, Samuel, 1768-1835, American pioneer in the cotton textile industry, b. Derbyshire, England. As an apprentice and later a mill supervisor, he gained a thorough knowledge of all the cotton-manufacturing machinery then in use. Drawn by the bounties offered for the encouragement of the textile industry in America, he left England in disguise, since the emigration of textile workers was forbidden, and reached New York in 1789. In 1790 he went to Providence, R.I., where he met Moses Brown and contracted to reproduce the complicated machinery for the firm of Almy and Brown, to which his name was soon added. This he accomplished by a remarkable feat of memory, because all attempts to obtain English models, by purchase or smuggling, had been futile. The first mill was replaced by another in 1793, at nearby Pawtucket. In 1798 he formed an additional partnership, with his relatives by marriage, called Samuel Slater and Company, and built another mill near Pawtucket, R.I. He later established mills at Slatersville (now in the town of North Smithfield), R.I., and elsewhere in New England, becoming very prosperous. He exercised strict but paternal supervision over his employees.

See biographies by G. S. White (1836, repr. 1967) and E. H. Cameron (1960); W. R. Bagnall, Samuel Slater and the Early Development of Cotton Manufacture in the United States (1890).

Marsden, Samuel, 1764-1838, Anglican clergyman and chaplain of a convict colony in New Zealand. He introduced domestic animals (especially sheep) into New Zealand. As director of the first missionary settlement there in 1814, Marsden began a tradition of missionary protection of the Maori natives against the incursion of European settlers.
Peters, Samuel, 1735-1826, American clergyman and historian, b. Hebron, Conn. Because of his Loyalist sympathies, he fled to England in 1774. There he wrote for English periodicals and published A General History of Connecticut by a Gentleman of the Province (1781). An unflattering and inaccurate description of the colony, it is particularly noted for its misrepresentation of the Connecticut blue laws.
Phelps, Samuel, 1804-78, English actor-manager. After appearing in the provinces for some years he became known in London c.1837 for his portrayals of Shakespearean characters. His contribution to 19th-century theater was in opening (1844) and managing Sadler's Wells, London. There, where melodrama had reigned, he staged Shakespeare's works with imagination and taste; his productions were noted for their scenic beauty. He left Sadler's Wells in 1862 but continued acting.
Phillips, Samuel, 1752-1802, American educator and politician, b. North Andover, Mass., grad. Harvard, 1771. A member of the Massachusetts provincial congress (1775-80) and a delegate to the state constitutional convention (1779-80), he served in the state senate (1780-1801, except for one year). He is best known, however, as the founder of Phillips Academy at Andover (opened 1778), a leading preparatory school for boys. His uncle, John Phillips (1719-95), the founder of Phillips Exeter Academy, provided financial backing. Samuel Phillips died shortly after his inauguration (1801) as lieutenant governor of Massachusetts.

See C. M. Fuess, An Old New England School (1917).

Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel, 1875-1912, English composer. He studied violin and composition at the Royal College of Music in London. He wrote many songs, orchestral works, piano pieces, and some chamber music but is best known for his cantatas, particularly the Hiawatha trilogy (1898-1900) and A Tale of Old Japan (1911).

See J. F. Coleridge-Taylor, Genius and Musician (1943).

(born March 17, 1874, Budapest, Hung., Austria-Hungary—died April 19, 1949, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Hungarian-born U.S. Reform rabbi, political activist, and Zionist leader. His family immigrated to the U.S. when he was an infant. He earned his Ph.D. at Columbia University in 1901 and was trained as a rabbi. In 1907, after declining a post at an influential congregation because of inadequate assurances of free speech in the pulpit, he founded the Free Synagogue. In 1898 he attended the Second Zionist Congress and helped found the Zionist Organization of America. A prominent member of the Democratic Party, he helped win U.S. government approval of the Balfour Declaration. In 1922 he founded the Jewish Institute of Religion, a seminary for liberal rabbis, which merged with Hebrew Union College in 1950.

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(born Feb. 9, 1814, New Lebanon, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 4, 1886, Greystone, N.Y.) U.S. politician. He was a leader of New York's Democratic Party, and, as state party chairman (1865–75), he effected the overthrow of the Tammany Hall boss William Magear Tweed. As governor (1875–76) he continued his reforms, exposing the Canal Ring, a group of politicians and contractors who had defrauded the state. In 1876 he was the Democratic nominee for president. The bitterly fought campaign ended in a popular-vote victory for Tilden, but Republicans contested the results in four states. To settle the controversy, Congress appointed the Electoral Commission, which decided in favour of the Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes (seealso electoral college). Unwilling to cause further conflict, Tilden accepted the decision and returned to his prosperous law practice. On his death he left his large fortune to establish a free public library for New York City.

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(born July 18, 1922, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—died June 17, 1996, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. historian and philosopher of science. He taught at Berkeley (1956–64), Princeton (1964–79), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1979–91). In his highly influential work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), he questioned the previously accepted view of scientific progress as a gradual accumulation of knowledge based on universally valid experimental methods and results, claiming that progress was often achieved by far-reaching “paradigm shifts.” His other works include The Copernican Revolution (1957), The Essential Tension (1977), and Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity (1978).

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(born March 17, 1874, Budapest, Hung., Austria-Hungary—died April 19, 1949, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Hungarian-born U.S. Reform rabbi, political activist, and Zionist leader. His family immigrated to the U.S. when he was an infant. He earned his Ph.D. at Columbia University in 1901 and was trained as a rabbi. In 1907, after declining a post at an influential congregation because of inadequate assurances of free speech in the pulpit, he founded the Free Synagogue. In 1898 he attended the Second Zionist Congress and helped found the Zionist Organization of America. A prominent member of the Democratic Party, he helped win U.S. government approval of the Balfour Declaration. In 1922 he founded the Jewish Institute of Religion, a seminary for liberal rabbis, which merged with Hebrew Union College in 1950.

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(born June 9, 1768, Belper, Derbyshire, Eng.—died April 21, 1835, Webster, Mass., U.S.) British-born U.S. industrialist. Initially apprenticed to a partner of Richard Arkwright, he immigrated to the U.S. in 1789, where he reproduced versions of Arkwright's spinning and carding machines from memory and in 1793 established the first successful American cotton mill at Pawtucket, R.I., the first of several plants. He founded the town of Slatersville, R.I. He is regarded as the founder of the U.S. cotton textile industry.

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(born Jan. 8, 1853, Darlington, Canada West—died Aug. 24, 1921, Lindsay, Ont., Can.) Canadian soldier and politician. He was proprietor and editor of an Ontario newspaper from 1885 to 1897. He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons in 1892, sitting until 1921, except during the South African War (1899–1902), in which he served as a lieutenant colonel. In 1911 he became Canadian minister of militia and defense. At the start of World War I, he organized, trained, and equipped the Canadian Expeditionary Force for service in Europe. He was knighted in 1915.

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(born March 28, 1652, Bishopstoke, Hampshire, Eng.—died Jan. 1, 1730, Boston, Mass.) British-American colonial merchant and jurist. He immigrated to America as a boy and became manager of the New England colonial printing press (1681–84) and a member of the governor's council (1684–1725). In 1692 he was appointed to preside at the Salem witch trials, in which 19 people were executed. Later admitting the error of the court's decision, he stood silently in the Old South Church in Boston in 1697 while his confession of error and guilt was read aloud. His three-volume Diary (published 1878–82) provides a view of New England Puritan life.

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(born 1567, Brouage, France—died Dec. 25, 1635, Quebec, New France) French explorer. He made several expeditions to North America before founding Quebec in 1608 with 32 colonists, most of whom did not survive the first winter. He joined with the northern Indian tribes to defeat Iroquois marauders and promoted the fur trade with the Indians. He discovered Lake Champlain in 1609 and made other explorations of what are now northern New York, the Ottawa River, and the eastern Great Lakes. English privateers besieged Quebec in 1628, when England and France were at war, and he was taken prisoner. In 1632 the colony was restored to France, and in 1633 Champlain made his last voyage to Quebec, where he lived until his death.

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge, detail of an oil painting by Washington Allston, 1814; in the National elipsis

(born Oct. 21, 1772, Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire, Eng.—died July 25, 1834, Highgate, near London) English poet, critic, and philosopher. Coleridge studied at the University of Cambridge, where he became closely associated with Robert Southey. In his poetry he perfected a sensuous lyricism that was echoed by many later poets. Lyrical Ballads (1798; with William Wordsworth), containing the famous “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and “Frost at Midnight,” heralded the beginning of English Romanticism. Other poems in the “fantastical” style of the “Mariner” include the unfinished “Christabel” and the celebrated “Pleasure Dome of Kubla Khan.” While in a bad marriage and addicted to opium, he produced “Dejection: An Ode” (1802), in which he laments the loss of his power to produce poetry. Later, partly restored by his revived Anglican faith, he wrote Biographia Literaria, 2 vol. (1817), the most significant work of general literary criticism of the Romantic period. Imaginative and complex, with a unique intellect, Coleridge led a restless life full of turmoil and unfulfilled possibilities.

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(born Jan. 6, 1882, Roane county, Tenn., U.S.—died Nov. 16, 1961, Bonham, Texas) U.S. politician. He taught school in Texas before becoming a lawyer. He served in the state legislature from 1907 to 1913. In 1912 he was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served for the next 48 years, including 17 years as speaker (1940–46, 1949–53, 1955–61). A skillful tactician, he influenced the passage of much New Deal legislation and cowrote the bill enacting rural electrification. He was the long-time political mentor of Lyndon B. Johnson and a trusted adviser to presidents from Franklin D. Roosevelt to John F. Kennedy.

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(born June 9, 1768, Belper, Derbyshire, Eng.—died April 21, 1835, Webster, Mass., U.S.) British-born U.S. industrialist. Initially apprenticed to a partner of Richard Arkwright, he immigrated to the U.S. in 1789, where he reproduced versions of Arkwright's spinning and carding machines from memory and in 1793 established the first successful American cotton mill at Pawtucket, R.I., the first of several plants. He founded the town of Slatersville, R.I. He is regarded as the founder of the U.S. cotton textile industry.

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(born May 12, 1929, Owambo, South West Africa) First president (1990–2005) of independent Namibia. In the late 1950s Nujoma helped found the Ovamboland People's Organization, forerunner of the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO). He became SWAPO's first president in 1960, and, after years of petitioning the UN to compel South Africa to release control of South West Africa, he authorized armed resistance (1966). In 1989, after some 30 years in exile, he led SWAPO to victory in the UN-supervised elections.

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(born March 28, 1652, Bishopstoke, Hampshire, Eng.—died Jan. 1, 1730, Boston, Mass.) British-American colonial merchant and jurist. He immigrated to America as a boy and became manager of the New England colonial printing press (1681–84) and a member of the governor's council (1684–1725). In 1692 he was appointed to preside at the Salem witch trials, in which 19 people were executed. Later admitting the error of the court's decision, he stood silently in the Old South Church in Boston in 1697 while his confession of error and guilt was read aloud. His three-volume Diary (published 1878–82) provides a view of New England Puritan life.

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(baptized Aug. 19, 1689, Mackworth, near Derby, Derbyshire, Eng.—died July 4, 1761, Parson's Green, near London) English novelist. After moving with his family to London at age 10, Richardson was apprenticed to a printer before setting up in business for himself in 1721. He soon became quite prosperous. In the 1730s he began to edit and write pamphlets, and he eventually hit on the idea of writing a book using a series of letters on the same subject. His major novels were the epistolary novel Pamela (1740), about a servant who avoids seduction and is rewarded by marriage; and his huge masterpiece, Clarissa, 7 vol. (1747–48), a tragedy with multiple narrators that develops a profoundly suggestive interplay of opposed voices. The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753–54), which blends moral discussion and a comic ending, influenced later writers, especially Jane Austen.

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(born Feb. 10, 1824, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died June 3, 1898, Folkestone, Kent) British reformer. A London coal merchant, he served in Parliament (1868–80). With his book Our Seamen (1873), he helped overcome resistance to the Merchant Shipping Act, which instituted such reforms as the loading limit for cargo ships. A load line (the Plimsoll mark or line) was marked on the hull of every cargo ship, indicating the maximum depth to which the ship could be safely loaded.

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(born Aug. 22, 1834, Roxbury, Mass., U.S.—died Feb. 27, 1906, Aiken, S.C.) U.S. astronomer and aeronautics pioneer. He taught for many years at the future University of Pittsburgh. He studied the effect of solar activity on weather and invented the bolometer (1878), a radiant-heat detector sensitive to extremely small temperature differences. He began conducting experiments on lift and drag of wings by building flying machines, and in 1896 one of his heavier-than-air machines became the first to achieve sustained unmanned flight, flying 3,000 ft (900 m) along the Potomac River.

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Samuel Pepys, oil painting by John Hayls, 1666; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Feb. 23, 1633, London, Eng.—died May 26, 1703, London) English diarist and public official. Born into a humble family, Pepys was appointed about 1659 as a clerk in the office of the Exchequer, where on Jan. 1, 1660, he began the diary for which he is chiefly known. He steadily improved his position, in time becoming secretary of the Admiralty, a member of Parliament, president of the Royal Society, trusted confidant of Charles II and James II, and friend of the great scholars of his age. His diary (published 1825), which he kept through 1669, presents a fascinating picture of the official and upper-class life in Restoration London, with vivid, honest accounts of ordinary as well as great events, including the Plague and the Great Fire of London.

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(born Jan. 27, 1805, London, Eng.—died May 24, 1881, Redhill, Surrey) British painter and etcher. He began exhibiting conventional landscapes at the Royal Academy by 14. After converting to a personal form of High Anglicanism and discovering medieval art, he developed a visionary style, displaying a mystical but precise depiction of nature and an overflowing religious intensity, united by a vivid re-creation of the pastoral conventions. In these works he was encouraged and influenced by William Blake. As his religious fervour faded after 1830, the precarious balance between realism and vision was lost.

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(born June 9, 1893, Worcester, Mass., U.S.—died Sept. 9, 1973, New York, N.Y.) U.S. playwright. He contributed to New York newspapers and magazines and studied drama at Harvard University. His successful first play, the light comedy The Second Man (1927), was followed by the popular Meteor (1929), Brief Moment (1931), and Biography (1932). His more serious plays include Rain from Heaven (1934) and No Time for Comedy (1939). Noted for addressing complex social and moral issues, he wrote over 25 comedies in his 40-year career, and nearly every one was a hit.

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(born March 29, 1918, Kingfisher, Okla., U.S.—died April 5, 1992, Little Rock, Ark.) U.S. retail magnate, founder of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. He attended the University of Missouri and then trained with the J.C. Penney Co. In 1945 he started a chain of variety stores in Arkansas, and in 1962 he opened his first Wal-Mart store in Rogers, Ark., offering a wide selection of discount merchandise. Whereas other discount-store chains were usually situated in or near large cities, Walton based his stores in small towns where there was little competition from established chains. Using this strategy his company expanded to 800 stores by 1985. In 1983 he opened the first Sam's Wholesale Club. Walton stepped down as chief executive officer of Wal-Mart Stores in 1988 but remained chairman until his death, by which time there were over 1,700 stores and Walton's family was the wealthiest in the U.S. In the 1990s Wal-Mart became controversial for depleting downtown districts of their commercial life by siting stores nearby. By the end of the 20th century it had become the world's largest retailer.

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orig. Samuel Langhorne Clemens

Mark Twain.

(born Nov. 30, 1835, Florida, Mo., U.S.—died April 21, 1910, Redding, Conn.) U.S. humorist, writer, and lecturer. He grew up in Hannibal, Mo., on the Mississippi River and was apprenticed in 1848 to a local printer. He received a riverboat pilot's license in 1859 and later moved on to Nevada and California. In 1863 he took his pseudonym, the riverman's term for water 2 fathoms (12 ft [3.7 m]) deep. In a California mining camp he heard the story that he first published in 1865 and made famous as the h1 story of his first book, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County (1867). He traveled widely, using his travels as subject matter for lectures and books, from the humorous narratives The Innocents Abroad (1869) and Roughing It (1872) to Life on the Mississippi (1883), his reflections on being a riverboat captain. He won a worldwide audience for his adventure stories of boyhood, especially Tom Sawyer (1876) and Huckleberry Finn (1885), one of the masterpieces of American fiction. The satirical A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) and increasingly grim works including Pudd'nhead Wilson (1894) and The Man Who Corrupted Hadleyburg (1900) followed. In the 1890s financial speculations bankrupted him. His eldest daughter died in 1896, his wife in 1904, and another daughter in 1909. He expressed his pessimism about human character in such late works as the posthumously published Letters from the Earth (1962).

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(born Dec. 1, 1741, Norwich, Conn.—died Feb. 28, 1808, Clinton, N.Y., U.S.) American clergyman. He was a Congregational missionary to Indian tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy and learned several Indian languages. In the American Revolution he served as chaplain to colonial troops and secured an alliance with the Oneida. He was rewarded with a land grant in New York state, where he founded the Hamilton Oneida Academy for Indian and white students (later Hamilton College).

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(born May 6, 1950/51, Tuzon, Liberia—died Sept. 9/10, 1990, Monrovia) Liberian soldier and head of state (1980–90). A member of the Krahn ethnic group, Doe led a coup in 1980 that overthrew Pres. William R. Tolbert (b. 1913—d. 1980). He suspended Liberia's constitution until 1984, and in 1985 he won a presidential election widely denounced as fraudulent. His regime was considered corrupt and brutal, and his life was continually threatened by assassination attempts. In the civil war that broke out in 1989, Doe was captured and killed.

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(born Feb. 9, 1814, New Lebanon, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 4, 1886, Greystone, N.Y.) U.S. politician. He was a leader of New York's Democratic Party, and, as state party chairman (1865–75), he effected the overthrow of the Tammany Hall boss William Magear Tweed. As governor (1875–76) he continued his reforms, exposing the Canal Ring, a group of politicians and contractors who had defrauded the state. In 1876 he was the Democratic nominee for president. The bitterly fought campaign ended in a popular-vote victory for Tilden, but Republicans contested the results in four states. To settle the controversy, Congress appointed the Electoral Commission, which decided in favour of the Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes (seealso electoral college). Unwilling to cause further conflict, Tilden accepted the decision and returned to his prosperous law practice. On his death he left his large fortune to establish a free public library for New York City.

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known as Dr. Johnson

(born Sept. 18, 1709, Lichfield, Staffordshire, Eng.—died Dec. 13, 1784, London) British man of letters, one of the outstanding figures of 18th-century England. The son of a poor bookseller, he briefly attended Oxford University. He moved to London after the failure of a school he and his wife had started. He wrote for periodicals and was hired to catalog the great library of the earl of Oxford. In 1755, after eight years of labour, he produced his monumental Dictionary of the English Language (1755), the first great English dictionary, which brought him fame. He continued to write for such periodicals as The Gentleman's Magazine and The Universal Chronicle, and he almost single-handedly wrote and edited the biweekly The Rambler (1750–52). He also wrote plays, none of which succeeded on the stage. In 1765 he produced a critical edition of William Shakespeare with a famous preface that did much to establish Shakespeare as the centre of the literary canon. His travel writings include A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (1775). His Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, 10 vol. (1779–81), was a significant critical work. A brilliant conversationalist, he helped found the Literary Club (circa 1763), which became famous for its members of distinction, including David Garrick, Edmund Burke, Oliver Goldsmith, and Joshua Reynolds. His aphorisms helped make him one of the most frequently quoted of English writers. The biography of Johnson written by his contemporary James Boswell is one of the most admired biographies of all time.

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(born May 27, 1912, near Hot Springs, Va., U.S.—died May 23, 2002, Hot Springs) U.S. golfer. Snead reportedly never took a golf lesson. Known for his straw hat and his flowing, powerful swing, “Slammin' Sam” won the PGA Championship (1942, 1949, 1951), the British Open (1946), and the Masters (1949, 1952, 1954) and was a member of the U.S. Ryder Cup team (eight times—including 1969, when he captained the squad but did not play). Snead won more PGA tournaments (82) than any other player in history, and his total number of world tournament wins is estimated at 135.

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(born Nov. 11, 1859, London, Eng.—died July 19, 1938, Paris, France) British-born U.S. public-utilities magnate. He moved to the U.S. in 1881 to become the private secretary of Thomas Alva Edison and rose to become president of the Chicago Edison Co. in 1892. By 1907 he had taken control of Chicago's transit system. By 1912 his vast electric-power system, enlarged by various mergers, was operating several hundred power plants. He vigorously promoted the stock of his holding companies. When they collapsed in 1932, he fled to Europe; extradited in 1934, he was tried three times for fraud, violation of bankruptcy laws, and embezzlement but was acquitted each time.

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Sam Houston, photograph by Mathew Brady

(born March 2, 1793, Rockbridge county, Va., U.S.—died July 26, 1863, Huntsville, Texas) U.S. politician. After the death of his father in 1807, Houston moved with his family to a farm in rural Tennessee. In his mid-teens he ran away and lived for nearly three years with the Cherokee Indians. After service in the War of 1812 he practiced law in Nashville and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1823–27). He was elected governor of Tennessee in 1827. After his marriage failed in 1829, he resigned his office and sought refuge among the Cherokee, who formally adopted him into the tribe. He twice traveled to Washington, D.C., to expose fraud perpetrated by government agents against the Indians. In 1832 he was sent by Pres. Andrew Jackson to Texas, then a Mexican province, to negotiate treaties with the Indians there. When U.S. settlers in Texas began an armed rebellion in 1835, the provisional Texas government chose him to command its army, and he defeated the Mexicans at San Jacinto, securing Texan independence. He served as president of the Republic of Texas (1836–38, 1841–44) and helped it to win statehood (1845); he then served in the U.S. Senate (1846–59). He was elected governor in 1859, but his pro-Union views were opposed by Democratic state leaders, who voted to secede in 1861. After he refused to swear allegiance to the Confederacy, he was deposed. The city of Houston was named in his honour.

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(born April 10, 1755, Meissen, Saxony—died July 2, 1843, Paris, Fr.) German physician, founder of homeopathy. Struck by the similarity of the symptoms quinine produced in the healthy body to those of the disorders it cured, he theorized that “likes are cured by likes” and proposed his doctrine that substances used this way are most effective in small doses. His chief work, Organon of Rational Medicine (1810), expounds his system. His Pure Pharmacology (6 vol., 1811) details the symptoms produced by testing a large number of drugs on healthy subjects.

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Samuel Gompers, 1911.

(born Jan. 27, 1850, London, Eng.—died Dec. 13, 1924, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.) British-born U.S. labour leader, first president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). He immigrated to New York City with his family in 1863, where he became a cigar maker and a union organizer. Known for his opposition to radicalism, Gompers argued that unions should avoid political involvement and focus on economic goals, bringing about change through strikes and boycotts. He stressed the primacy of the national organization over local and international affiliations, and he emphasized the need for written contracts. In 1886 he led the national organization of cigar makers out of the Knights of Labor to form the AFL, of which he served as president from 1886 to 1924 (except 1895). Seealso AFL-CIO.

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orig. Schmuel Gelbfisz later Samuel Goldfish

(born July 1879, Warsaw, Pol.—died Jan. 31, 1974, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.) U.S. film producer. He emigrated alone at age 13 from Poland to New York, where he worked in a glove factory and became a salesman. He formed a film company with his brother-in-law, Jesse L. Lasky (1880–1958), and Cecil B. DeMille in 1913. In 1917 he left the company and with Edgar Selwyn established Goldwyn Pictures Corp. By the time that company merged into MGM (1924), he had become an independent producer. He employed top screenwriters, directors, and actors to produce films of high quality, including Wuthering Heights (1939), The Little Foxes (1941), The Best Years of Our Lives (1946), Guys and Dolls (1955), and Porgy and Bess (1959).

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(born April 27, 1791, Charlestown, Mass., U.S.—died April 2, 1872, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter and inventor. The son of a distinguished geographer, he attended Yale University and studied painting in England (1811–15). He returned home to work as an itinerant painter; his portraits still rank among the finest produced in the U.S. He cofounded the National Academy of Design and served as its first president (1826–45). Independent of similar efforts in Europe, he developed an electric telegraph (1832–35), believing his to be the first. He developed the system of dots and dashes that became known internationally as Morse code (1838). Though denied support from Congress for a transatlantic telegraph line, he received congressional support for the first U.S. telegraph line, from Baltimore to Washington; on its completion in 1844 he sent the message “What hath God wrought!” His patents brought him fame and wealth.

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(born July 9, 1887, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died May 15, 1976, Boston) U.S. biographer and historian. He taught at Harvard University for 40 years. To give authenticity to his writings on maritime history, he undertook numerous voyages and during wartime served on 12 ships as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Naval Reserve. His works include Admiral of the Ocean Sea (1942, Pulitzer Prize), on Christopher Columbus; John Paul Jones (1959, Pulitzer Prize); the monumental History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II, 15 vol. (1947–62); and The Oxford History of the American People (1965).

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(born July 8, 1805, Easton, Pa., U.S.—died May 6, 1884, Philadelphia) U.S. surgeon, teacher of medicine, and author. He was apprenticed to a local country doctor before receiving formal medical training. His most celebrated work, Elements of Pathological Anatomy (1839), was a pioneering effort that organized knowledge on the subject in English, and his System of Surgery (2 vol., 1859) had a profound effect on surgical thought worldwide. His Manual of Military Surgery (1861) was written at the government's request. Gross also invented many surgical tools. He was memorably portrayed in Thomas Eakins's masterpiece, The Gross Clinic.

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(born Dec. 3, 1753, Firwood, Lancashire, Eng.—died June 26, 1827, Bolton, Lancashire) British inventor. His spinning mule (probably called a mule because it was a cross between inventions of Richard Arkwright and James Hargreaves) permitted large-scale manufacture of high-quality thread and yarn by simultaneously drawing out and giving the final twisting to the cotton fibres fed into it, reproducing mechanically the actions of hand spinning.

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(born July 19, 1814, Hartford, Conn., U.S.—died Jan. 10, 1862, Hartford) U.S. inventor. He worked in his father's textile factory before going to sea in 1830. On a voyage to India he conceived the idea for his first revolver, which he later patented (1835–36). Colt's six-shooters were slow to gain acceptance, and his company in Paterson, N.J., failed in 1842. He invented a naval mine with the first remotely controlled explosive in 1843 and conducted a telegraph business that used the first underwater cable. Soldiers' favourable reports prompted an order for 1,000 pistols during the Mexican War, and Colt resumed manufacture in 1847. Assisted by Eli Whitney, Jr., he advanced the development of interchangeable parts and the assembly line. His firm, based in Hartford, produced the revolvers most widely used in the American Civil War and in the settlement of the West, including the famous Colt .45.

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(born April 17, 1741, Princess Anne, Md.—died June 19, 1811, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He was a member of the Maryland assembly (1764–84). An ardent patriot, he helped lead the Sons of Liberty in violent resistance against the Stamp Act. He served on the state Committee of Correspondence (1774), was elected to the Continental Congress, and signed the Declaration of Independence. When Alexander Hamilton exposed his attempt to corner the flour market (1778), Chase retired from Congress, only to return in 1784. He served as chief judge of the Maryland General Court from 1791 to 1796, when Pres. George Washington appointed him to the Supreme Court of the United States. Chase upheld the primacy of U.S. treaties over state statutes in Ware v. Hylton. In Calder v. Bull (1798) he contributed to the definition of due process. At the instigation of Pres. Thomas Jefferson, Chase was impeached for partisan conduct in 1804. His acquittal established the principle that federal judges can be removed only for indictable criminal acts, thus strengthening the independence of the judiciary. Chase served until 1811.

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Samuel Butler, detail of an oil painting by Charles Gogin, 1896; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born Dec. 4, 1835, Langar Rectory, Nottinghamshire, Eng.—died June 18, 1902, London) British novelist, essayist, and critic. Descended from distinguished clergymen, he grappled for many years with Christianity and evolution, first embracing, then rejecting, Charles Darwin's theories in his writings. He is best known for The Way of All Flesh (1903), his autobiographical novel that tells, with ruthless wit and lack of sentiment, the story of his escape from the suffocating moral atmosphere of his home circle. In his lifetime his reputation rested on the utopian satire Erewhon (1872), which foreshadowed the end of the Victorian illusion of eternal progress.

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Samuel Beckett, 1965.

(born April 13?, 1906, Foxrock, Co. Dublin, Ire.—died Dec. 22, 1989, Paris, France) Irish playwright. After studying in Ireland and traveling, he settled in Paris in 1937. During World War II he supported himself as a farmworker and joined the underground resistance. In the postwar years he wrote, in French, the narrative trilogy Molloy (1951), Malone Dies (1951), and The Unnamable (1953). His play Waiting for Godot (1952) was an immediate success in Paris and gained worldwide acclaim when he translated it into English. Marked by minimal plot and action, existentialist ideas, and humour, it typifies the Theatre of the Absurd. His later plays, also sparsely staged, abstract works that deal with the mystery and despair of human existence, include Endgame (1957), Krapp's Last Tape (1958), and Happy Days (1961). In 1969 he was awarded the Nobel Prize.

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Samuel Beckett, 1965.

(born April 13?, 1906, Foxrock, Co. Dublin, Ire.—died Dec. 22, 1989, Paris, France) Irish playwright. After studying in Ireland and traveling, he settled in Paris in 1937. During World War II he supported himself as a farmworker and joined the underground resistance. In the postwar years he wrote, in French, the narrative trilogy Molloy (1951), Malone Dies (1951), and The Unnamable (1953). His play Waiting for Godot (1952) was an immediate success in Paris and gained worldwide acclaim when he translated it into English. Marked by minimal plot and action, existentialist ideas, and humour, it typifies the Theatre of the Absurd. His later plays, also sparsely staged, abstract works that deal with the mystery and despair of human existence, include Endgame (1957), Krapp's Last Tape (1958), and Happy Days (1961). In 1969 he was awarded the Nobel Prize.

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(born March 9, 1910, West Chester, Pa., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1981, New York, N.Y.) U.S. composer. He studied piano, voice, conducting, and composition at the Curtis Institute. After graduation in 1934, he devoted himself to composition. Barber's style, frequently lyrical and neo-Romantic, proved highly attractive to the public. His works include the popular Adagio for Strings (1936), two Essays for Orchestra (1937, 1942), the opera Vanessa (1957, Pulitzer Prize), and a Piano Concerto (1962, Pulitzer Prize).

Learn more about Barber, Samuel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 27, 1722, Boston, Mass.—died Oct. 2, 1803, Boston, Mass., U.S.) American Revolutionary leader. A cousin of John Adams, he graduated from Harvard College in 1740 and briefly practiced law. He became a strong opponent of British taxation measures and organized resistance to the Stamp Act. He was a member of the state legislature (1765–74), and in 1772 he helped found the Committees of Correspondence. He influenced reaction to the Tea Act of 1773, organized the Boston Tea Party, and led opposition to the Intolerable Acts. A delegate to the Continental Congress (1774–81), he continued to call for separation from Britain and signed the Declaration of Independence. He helped draft the Massachusetts constitution in 1780 and served as the state's governor (1794–97).

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Alito, Samuel A., Jr.

(died Oct. 6, 1014) Tsar of Western Bulgaria (980–1014). Ruling originally in Macedonia, he conquered Serbia, northern Bulgaria, Albania, and northern Greece. He revived the Bulgarian patriarchate and in the 980s defeated Basil II. However, his struggle with the Byzantines continued until 1014, when Basil defeated Samuel's army at the Battle of Belasitsa. At Basil's order, the 15,000 Bulgarian prisoners were blinded and then returned to Samuel, who is said to have died of shock.

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(baptized Aug. 19, 1689, Mackworth, near Derby, Derbyshire, Eng.—died July 4, 1761, Parson's Green, near London) English novelist. After moving with his family to London at age 10, Richardson was apprenticed to a printer before setting up in business for himself in 1721. He soon became quite prosperous. In the 1730s he began to edit and write pamphlets, and he eventually hit on the idea of writing a book using a series of letters on the same subject. His major novels were the epistolary novel Pamela (1740), about a servant who avoids seduction and is rewarded by marriage; and his huge masterpiece, Clarissa, 7 vol. (1747–48), a tragedy with multiple narrators that develops a profoundly suggestive interplay of opposed voices. The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753–54), which blends moral discussion and a comic ending, influenced later writers, especially Jane Austen.

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(born Feb. 10, 1824, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died June 3, 1898, Folkestone, Kent) British reformer. A London coal merchant, he served in Parliament (1868–80). With his book Our Seamen (1873), he helped overcome resistance to the Merchant Shipping Act, which instituted such reforms as the loading limit for cargo ships. A load line (the Plimsoll mark or line) was marked on the hull of every cargo ship, indicating the maximum depth to which the ship could be safely loaded.

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Samuel Pepys, oil painting by John Hayls, 1666; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Feb. 23, 1633, London, Eng.—died May 26, 1703, London) English diarist and public official. Born into a humble family, Pepys was appointed about 1659 as a clerk in the office of the Exchequer, where on Jan. 1, 1660, he began the diary for which he is chiefly known. He steadily improved his position, in time becoming secretary of the Admiralty, a member of Parliament, president of the Royal Society, trusted confidant of Charles II and James II, and friend of the great scholars of his age. His diary (published 1825), which he kept through 1669, presents a fascinating picture of the official and upper-class life in Restoration London, with vivid, honest accounts of ordinary as well as great events, including the Plague and the Great Fire of London.

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(born Jan. 27, 1805, London, Eng.—died May 24, 1881, Redhill, Surrey) British painter and etcher. He began exhibiting conventional landscapes at the Royal Academy by 14. After converting to a personal form of High Anglicanism and discovering medieval art, he developed a visionary style, displaying a mystical but precise depiction of nature and an overflowing religious intensity, united by a vivid re-creation of the pastoral conventions. In these works he was encouraged and influenced by William Blake. As his religious fervour faded after 1830, the precarious balance between realism and vision was lost.

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(born April 27, 1791, Charlestown, Mass., U.S.—died April 2, 1872, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter and inventor. The son of a distinguished geographer, he attended Yale University and studied painting in England (1811–15). He returned home to work as an itinerant painter; his portraits still rank among the finest produced in the U.S. He cofounded the National Academy of Design and served as its first president (1826–45). Independent of similar efforts in Europe, he developed an electric telegraph (1832–35), believing his to be the first. He developed the system of dots and dashes that became known internationally as Morse code (1838). Though denied support from Congress for a transatlantic telegraph line, he received congressional support for the first U.S. telegraph line, from Baltimore to Washington; on its completion in 1844 he sent the message “What hath God wrought!” His patents brought him fame and wealth.

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(born July 9, 1887, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died May 15, 1976, Boston) U.S. biographer and historian. He taught at Harvard University for 40 years. To give authenticity to his writings on maritime history, he undertook numerous voyages and during wartime served on 12 ships as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Naval Reserve. His works include Admiral of the Ocean Sea (1942, Pulitzer Prize), on Christopher Columbus; John Paul Jones (1959, Pulitzer Prize); the monumental History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II, 15 vol. (1947–62); and The Oxford History of the American People (1965).

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(born Aug. 22, 1834, Roxbury, Mass., U.S.—died Feb. 27, 1906, Aiken, S.C.) U.S. astronomer and aeronautics pioneer. He taught for many years at the future University of Pittsburgh. He studied the effect of solar activity on weather and invented the bolometer (1878), a radiant-heat detector sensitive to extremely small temperature differences. He began conducting experiments on lift and drag of wings by building flying machines, and in 1896 one of his heavier-than-air machines became the first to achieve sustained unmanned flight, flying 3,000 ft (900 m) along the Potomac River.

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(born July 18, 1922, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—died June 17, 1996, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. historian and philosopher of science. He taught at Berkeley (1956–64), Princeton (1964–79), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1979–91). In his highly influential work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), he questioned the previously accepted view of scientific progress as a gradual accumulation of knowledge based on universally valid experimental methods and results, claiming that progress was often achieved by far-reaching “paradigm shifts.” His other works include The Copernican Revolution (1957), The Essential Tension (1977), and Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity (1978).

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(born Dec. 1, 1741, Norwich, Conn.—died Feb. 28, 1808, Clinton, N.Y., U.S.) American clergyman. He was a Congregational missionary to Indian tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy and learned several Indian languages. In the American Revolution he served as chaplain to colonial troops and secured an alliance with the Oneida. He was rewarded with a land grant in New York state, where he founded the Hamilton Oneida Academy for Indian and white students (later Hamilton College).

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known as Dr. Johnson

(born Sept. 18, 1709, Lichfield, Staffordshire, Eng.—died Dec. 13, 1784, London) British man of letters, one of the outstanding figures of 18th-century England. The son of a poor bookseller, he briefly attended Oxford University. He moved to London after the failure of a school he and his wife had started. He wrote for periodicals and was hired to catalog the great library of the earl of Oxford. In 1755, after eight years of labour, he produced his monumental Dictionary of the English Language (1755), the first great English dictionary, which brought him fame. He continued to write for such periodicals as The Gentleman's Magazine and The Universal Chronicle, and he almost single-handedly wrote and edited the biweekly The Rambler (1750–52). He also wrote plays, none of which succeeded on the stage. In 1765 he produced a critical edition of William Shakespeare with a famous preface that did much to establish Shakespeare as the centre of the literary canon. His travel writings include A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (1775). His Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, 10 vol. (1779–81), was a significant critical work. A brilliant conversationalist, he helped found the Literary Club (circa 1763), which became famous for its members of distinction, including David Garrick, Edmund Burke, Oliver Goldsmith, and Joshua Reynolds. His aphorisms helped make him one of the most frequently quoted of English writers. The biography of Johnson written by his contemporary James Boswell is one of the most admired biographies of all time.

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(born Nov. 11, 1859, London, Eng.—died July 19, 1938, Paris, France) British-born U.S. public-utilities magnate. He moved to the U.S. in 1881 to become the private secretary of Thomas Alva Edison and rose to become president of the Chicago Edison Co. in 1892. By 1907 he had taken control of Chicago's transit system. By 1912 his vast electric-power system, enlarged by various mergers, was operating several hundred power plants. He vigorously promoted the stock of his holding companies. When they collapsed in 1932, he fled to Europe; extradited in 1934, he was tried three times for fraud, violation of bankruptcy laws, and embezzlement but was acquitted each time.

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(born Jan. 8, 1853, Darlington, Canada West—died Aug. 24, 1921, Lindsay, Ont., Can.) Canadian soldier and politician. He was proprietor and editor of an Ontario newspaper from 1885 to 1897. He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons in 1892, sitting until 1921, except during the South African War (1899–1902), in which he served as a lieutenant colonel. In 1911 he became Canadian minister of militia and defense. At the start of World War I, he organized, trained, and equipped the Canadian Expeditionary Force for service in Europe. He was knighted in 1915.

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(born Dec. 20, 1868, Columbiana, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 7, 1938, Miami Beach, Fla.) U.S. industrialist. Firestone established a retail tire business in 1896 and in 1900 formed a company to sell rubber carriage tires. In 1904 his business began manufacturing automobile tires. Sales to Ford Motor Co. helped put Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. at the top of the U.S. tire industry. Firestone promoted the use of trucks for hauling freight and lobbied for the construction of vast highway systems. He ran his company until 1932, when his son replaced him. Firestone was purchased by Bridgestone Tire Co., a Japanese firm, in 1988.

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Dashiell Hammett.

(born May 27, 1894, St. Mary's county, Md., U.S.—died Jan. 10, 1961, New York, N.Y.) U.S. detective novelist. He left school at age 13. He spent eight years as a private detective before beginning to publish fiction in pulp magazines. His first novels were Red Harvest (1929) and The Dain Curse (1929). The Maltese Falcon (1930; film, 1941), considered his finest work, introduced Sam Spade, the prototype of the hard-boiled detective. It was followed by the story collection The Continental Op (1930) and the novel The Glass Key (1931). The Thin Man (1934), featuring the witty detective couple Nick and Nora Charles, spawned a popular series of movies. Nora was based on Lillian Hellman, with whom Hammett had a romantic alliance from 1930 until his death. He later worked as a screenwriter. For refusing to answer questions about his Communist Party affiliations and those of his associates, he served a six-month prison sentence in 1951.

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(born July 8, 1805, Easton, Pa., U.S.—died May 6, 1884, Philadelphia) U.S. surgeon, teacher of medicine, and author. He was apprenticed to a local country doctor before receiving formal medical training. His most celebrated work, Elements of Pathological Anatomy (1839), was a pioneering effort that organized knowledge on the subject in English, and his System of Surgery (2 vol., 1859) had a profound effect on surgical thought worldwide. His Manual of Military Surgery (1861) was written at the government's request. Gross also invented many surgical tools. He was memorably portrayed in Thomas Eakins's masterpiece, The Gross Clinic.

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Samuel Gompers, 1911.

(born Jan. 27, 1850, London, Eng.—died Dec. 13, 1924, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.) British-born U.S. labour leader, first president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). He immigrated to New York City with his family in 1863, where he became a cigar maker and a union organizer. Known for his opposition to radicalism, Gompers argued that unions should avoid political involvement and focus on economic goals, bringing about change through strikes and boycotts. He stressed the primacy of the national organization over local and international affiliations, and he emphasized the need for written contracts. In 1886 he led the national organization of cigar makers out of the Knights of Labor to form the AFL, of which he served as president from 1886 to 1924 (except 1895). Seealso AFL-CIO.

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orig. Schmuel Gelbfisz later Samuel Goldfish

(born July 1879, Warsaw, Pol.—died Jan. 31, 1974, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.) U.S. film producer. He emigrated alone at age 13 from Poland to New York, where he worked in a glove factory and became a salesman. He formed a film company with his brother-in-law, Jesse L. Lasky (1880–1958), and Cecil B. DeMille in 1913. In 1917 he left the company and with Edgar Selwyn established Goldwyn Pictures Corp. By the time that company merged into MGM (1924), he had become an independent producer. He employed top screenwriters, directors, and actors to produce films of high quality, including Wuthering Heights (1939), The Little Foxes (1941), The Best Years of Our Lives (1946), Guys and Dolls (1955), and Porgy and Bess (1959).

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(born Dec. 20, 1868, Columbiana, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 7, 1938, Miami Beach, Fla.) U.S. industrialist. Firestone established a retail tire business in 1896 and in 1900 formed a company to sell rubber carriage tires. In 1904 his business began manufacturing automobile tires. Sales to Ford Motor Co. helped put Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. at the top of the U.S. tire industry. Firestone promoted the use of trucks for hauling freight and lobbied for the construction of vast highway systems. He ran his company until 1932, when his son replaced him. Firestone was purchased by Bridgestone Tire Co., a Japanese firm, in 1988.

Learn more about Firestone, Harvey S(amuel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 6, 1950/51, Tuzon, Liberia—died Sept. 9/10, 1990, Monrovia) Liberian soldier and head of state (1980–90). A member of the Krahn ethnic group, Doe led a coup in 1980 that overthrew Pres. William R. Tolbert (b. 1913—d. 1980). He suspended Liberia's constitution until 1984, and in 1985 he won a presidential election widely denounced as fraudulent. His regime was considered corrupt and brutal, and his life was continually threatened by assassination attempts. In the civil war that broke out in 1989, Doe was captured and killed.

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(born Dec. 3, 1753, Firwood, Lancashire, Eng.—died June 26, 1827, Bolton, Lancashire) British inventor. His spinning mule (probably called a mule because it was a cross between inventions of Richard Arkwright and James Hargreaves) permitted large-scale manufacture of high-quality thread and yarn by simultaneously drawing out and giving the final twisting to the cotton fibres fed into it, reproducing mechanically the actions of hand spinning.

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(born July 19, 1814, Hartford, Conn., U.S.—died Jan. 10, 1862, Hartford) U.S. inventor. He worked in his father's textile factory before going to sea in 1830. On a voyage to India he conceived the idea for his first revolver, which he later patented (1835–36). Colt's six-shooters were slow to gain acceptance, and his company in Paterson, N.J., failed in 1842. He invented a naval mine with the first remotely controlled explosive in 1843 and conducted a telegraph business that used the first underwater cable. Soldiers' favourable reports prompted an order for 1,000 pistols during the Mexican War, and Colt resumed manufacture in 1847. Assisted by Eli Whitney, Jr., he advanced the development of interchangeable parts and the assembly line. His firm, based in Hartford, produced the revolvers most widely used in the American Civil War and in the settlement of the West, including the famous Colt .45.

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge, detail of an oil painting by Washington Allston, 1814; in the National elipsis

(born Oct. 21, 1772, Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire, Eng.—died July 25, 1834, Highgate, near London) English poet, critic, and philosopher. Coleridge studied at the University of Cambridge, where he became closely associated with Robert Southey. In his poetry he perfected a sensuous lyricism that was echoed by many later poets. Lyrical Ballads (1798; with William Wordsworth), containing the famous “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and “Frost at Midnight,” heralded the beginning of English Romanticism. Other poems in the “fantastical” style of the “Mariner” include the unfinished “Christabel” and the celebrated “Pleasure Dome of Kubla Khan.” While in a bad marriage and addicted to opium, he produced “Dejection: An Ode” (1802), in which he laments the loss of his power to produce poetry. Later, partly restored by his revived Anglican faith, he wrote Biographia Literaria, 2 vol. (1817), the most significant work of general literary criticism of the Romantic period. Imaginative and complex, with a unique intellect, Coleridge led a restless life full of turmoil and unfulfilled possibilities.

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(born April 17, 1741, Princess Anne, Md.—died June 19, 1811, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He was a member of the Maryland assembly (1764–84). An ardent patriot, he helped lead the Sons of Liberty in violent resistance against the Stamp Act. He served on the state Committee of Correspondence (1774), was elected to the Continental Congress, and signed the Declaration of Independence. When Alexander Hamilton exposed his attempt to corner the flour market (1778), Chase retired from Congress, only to return in 1784. He served as chief judge of the Maryland General Court from 1791 to 1796, when Pres. George Washington appointed him to the Supreme Court of the United States. Chase upheld the primacy of U.S. treaties over state statutes in Ware v. Hylton. In Calder v. Bull (1798) he contributed to the definition of due process. At the instigation of Pres. Thomas Jefferson, Chase was impeached for partisan conduct in 1804. His acquittal established the principle that federal judges can be removed only for indictable criminal acts, thus strengthening the independence of the judiciary. Chase served until 1811.

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(born Jan. 7, 1912, Westfield, N.J., U.S.—died Sept. 29, 1988, New York, N.Y.) U.S. cartoonist. He worked briefly as a commercial artist before selling his first cartoon to The New Yorker in 1933. He became famous for darkly humorous cartoons depicting morbid behaviour by sinister-looking characters, especially a family of ghouls whose activities travestied those of a conventional family; in one popular image, they prepare to pour boiling oil on a group of Christmas carolers. These evolved into The Addams Family, a 1960s television series that generated two Hollywood films.

Learn more about Addams, Charles (Samuel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born 1567, Brouage, France—died Dec. 25, 1635, Quebec, New France) French explorer. He made several expeditions to North America before founding Quebec in 1608 with 32 colonists, most of whom did not survive the first winter. He joined with the northern Indian tribes to defeat Iroquois marauders and promoted the fur trade with the Indians. He discovered Lake Champlain in 1609 and made other explorations of what are now northern New York, the Ottawa River, and the eastern Great Lakes. English privateers besieged Quebec in 1628, when England and France were at war, and he was taken prisoner. In 1632 the colony was restored to France, and in 1633 Champlain made his last voyage to Quebec, where he lived until his death.

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Samuel Butler, detail of an oil painting by Charles Gogin, 1896; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born Dec. 4, 1835, Langar Rectory, Nottinghamshire, Eng.—died June 18, 1902, London) British novelist, essayist, and critic. Descended from distinguished clergymen, he grappled for many years with Christianity and evolution, first embracing, then rejecting, Charles Darwin's theories in his writings. He is best known for The Way of All Flesh (1903), his autobiographical novel that tells, with ruthless wit and lack of sentiment, the story of his escape from the suffocating moral atmosphere of his home circle. In his lifetime his reputation rested on the utopian satire Erewhon (1872), which foreshadowed the end of the Victorian illusion of eternal progress.

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(born July 28, 1925, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. research physician. He received his M.D. from Columbia University. His discovery of an antigen that he later proved to be part of the hepatitis B virus, and which causes the body to produce antibodies to the virus, led to blood-donor screening and a vaccine. He shared a 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with D. Carleton Gajdusek.

Learn more about Blumberg, Baruch S(amuel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 28, 1925, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. research physician. He received his M.D. from Columbia University. His discovery of an antigen that he later proved to be part of the hepatitis B virus, and which causes the body to produce antibodies to the virus, led to blood-donor screening and a vaccine. He shared a 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with D. Carleton Gajdusek.

Learn more about Blumberg, Baruch S(amuel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 9, 1910, West Chester, Pa., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1981, New York, N.Y.) U.S. composer. He studied piano, voice, conducting, and composition at the Curtis Institute. After graduation in 1934, he devoted himself to composition. Barber's style, frequently lyrical and neo-Romantic, proved highly attractive to the public. His works include the popular Adagio for Strings (1936), two Essays for Orchestra (1937, 1942), the opera Vanessa (1957, Pulitzer Prize), and a Piano Concerto (1962, Pulitzer Prize).

Learn more about Barber, Samuel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Alito, Samuel A., Jr.

(born Jan. 7, 1912, Westfield, N.J., U.S.—died Sept. 29, 1988, New York, N.Y.) U.S. cartoonist. He worked briefly as a commercial artist before selling his first cartoon to The New Yorker in 1933. He became famous for darkly humorous cartoons depicting morbid behaviour by sinister-looking characters, especially a family of ghouls whose activities travestied those of a conventional family; in one popular image, they prepare to pour boiling oil on a group of Christmas carolers. These evolved into The Addams Family, a 1960s television series that generated two Hollywood films.

Learn more about Addams, Charles (Samuel) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 27, 1722, Boston, Mass.—died Oct. 2, 1803, Boston, Mass., U.S.) American Revolutionary leader. A cousin of John Adams, he graduated from Harvard College in 1740 and briefly practiced law. He became a strong opponent of British taxation measures and organized resistance to the Stamp Act. He was a member of the state legislature (1765–74), and in 1772 he helped found the Committees of Correspondence. He influenced reaction to the Tea Act of 1773, organized the Boston Tea Party, and led opposition to the Intolerable Acts. A delegate to the Continental Congress (1774–81), he continued to call for separation from Britain and signed the Declaration of Independence. He helped draft the Massachusetts constitution in 1780 and served as the state's governor (1794–97).

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Constance Wilson-Samuel (January 7, 1908February 28, 1953) was a Canadian figure skater. In 1932, she won the bronze medal at the World Figure Skating Championships.

Wilson-Samuel also competed in pair skating with her brother Montgomery Wilson. Together, they won numerous Canadian and North American championships.

Competitive highlights

Ladies' Singles
Event/Season 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935
Canadian Championships 3rd 1st 2nd 2nd 1st - 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st
North American Championships - - - - 2nd - 1st - 1st - 1st - 1st
World Championships - - - - - 4th - 4th - 3rd - - -
Winter Olympics - - - - - - - - - 4th - - -

Pairs (with Errol Morson)

Event/Season 1926
Canadian Championships 1st

Pairs (with Montgomery Wilson)

Event/Season 1927 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935
Canadian Championships 2nd 1st 1st 2nd 1st 1st 1st 3rd
North American Championships 3rd 1st - 1st - 1st - 2nd
Winter Olympics - - - - 5th - - -

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