- For the term run out, used in equestrian sport, see refusal
Run out is a method of dismissal in the sport of cricket. It is governed by Law 38 of the Laws of cricket.
A batsman is out Run out
if at any time while the ball is in play no part of his bat or person is grounded behind the popping crease
and his wicket is fairly put down
by the opposing side.
A batsman may be dismissed Run out whether or not a run is being attempted,
even if the delivery is a no ball (ie not a fair delivery). There are a number of exceptions to this:
(1) A batsman is not run out if he or his bat had been grounded behind the popping crease, but he subsequently leaves it to avoid injury, when the wicket is put down.
(2) A batsman is not run out if the ball has not been touched by a fielder (excluding a helmet worn by a fielder), after the bowler has entered his delivery stride, before the wicket is put down. (Therefore, the bowler may not run out the striker instead of bowling to him.)
(3) A batsman is not given out Run out if he can be given out Stumped (or, in the case of a No Ball, could have been so given out were the delivery a fair one).
The batsman who is out Run out is the batsman who is closest to the end where the wicket has been put down. The runs completed before a Run out are still scored by the batsman and his team (compare caught where the reverse is true). The bowler does not get credit for the wicket.
Running out a batsman "backing up"
As a bowler enters his delivery stride, the non-striking batsman usually 'backs up'. This means he leaves his popping crease and walks towards the other end of the wicket so that it will take him less time for him to reach the other end if he and his batting partner choose to attempt a run.
Sometimes a batsman, whilst backing up, leaves the popping crease before the bowler has actually delivered the ball. Where this has happened, the bowler may attempt to run the non-striking batsman out. Getting a batsman out this way, though legal, is generally considered to be against the spirit of the game as the non-striker usually accidentally leaves the crease. The bowler is meant to warn the batsman to stay in his crease rather than to take his wicket. If the batsman repeats this, despite an earlier warning, a bowler may run him out without a further warning. If he fails, and the batsman gets home, the delivery is called a dead ball. When it has happened in first-class cricket, it has been controversial.
The most famous incident of this method of dismissal involved the Indian bowler Vinoo Mankad
. It occurred during India's tour of Australia on 13 December 1947
in the second Test match
. Mankad ran out Bill Brown
when, in the act of delivering the ball, he held on to it and whipped the bails off with Brown well out of his crease. This was the second time Mankad had dismissed Brown in this fashion on this tour - he had done it in an earlier match against an Australian XI. On that occasion he had warned Brown once before running him out. The Australian press strongly accused Mankad of being unsportsmanlike, though some Australians, including Don Bradman
, the Australian captain at the time, defended Mankad's actions. Instances of bowlers running batsmen out this way in first class cricket date back to the nineteenth century. But after this incident, if a batsman is given out this way, he is said to have been Mankaded.
Since then the Laws of cricket have changed, so that a bowler may no longer Mankad a batsman once he has entered into his delivery stride. However, under Law 42.15 of the Laws of Cricket it remains possible for a bowler to run out a non-striker who has strayed outside his crease after he has started his run up, but before he has entered his delivery stride. [Appendix D of the 2000 Code defines delivery stride as the stride during which the delivery swing is made; it starts when the bowler's back foot lands for that stride and ends when the front foot lands in the same stride.]
In indoor cricket Mankading is still permitted. When this happens the batsman is actually given out 'mankad' rather than 'run out'.
Instances of Mankading in Test Cricket
- Bill Brown by Vinoo Mankad, Australia v India, Sydney, 1947-48
- Ian Redpath by Charlie Griffith, Australia v West Indies, Adelaide, 1968-69
- Derek Randall by Ewen Chatfield, England v New Zealand, Christchurch, 1977-78
- Sikander Bakht by Alan Hurst, Pakistan v Australia, Perth, 1978-79
Instances of Mankading in One Day Internationals
The batsman's team is listed first.
- Brian Luckhurst by Greg Chappell, England v Australia, Melbourne, 1974-75
- Grant Flower by Dipak Patel, Zimbabwe v New Zealand, Harare, 1992-93
- Peter Kirsten by Kapil Dev, South Africa v India, Port Elizabeth, 1992-93
Most famous instance of not Mankading
of the West Indies
famously refused to mankad last man Saleem Jaffar
for backing up too far in a league match in the 1987 World Cup
, but let him off with a warning. Pakistan went on to win the match while the defeat cost the West Indies a place in the semi-final.