The Party is personified by Big Brother, an omnipresent face constantly depicted on posters and the telescreen; like the Party itself, Big Brother is constantly watching. Ingsoc demands complete submission and tortures to achieve it, (see Room 101). Ingsoc has mastered a complex system of psychological tools and methods not only to make people confess imagined crimes and forget thoughts of rebellion, but also to actually love Ingsoc itself.
Unlike most real totalitarian regimes, Ingsoc has little if any true end or ultimate political goal other than control for its own sake. O'Brien puts it quite glibly:
The German Nazis and the Russian Communists came very close to us in their methods, but they never had the courage to recognize their own motives. They pretended, perhaps they even believed, that they had seized power unwillingly and for a limited time, and that just round the corner there lay a paradise where human beings would be free and equal. We are not like that. We know that no one ever seizes power with the intention of relinquishing it. Power is not a means, it is an end. One does not establish a dictatorship in order to safeguard a revolution; one makes the revolution in order to establish the dictatorship. The object of persecution is persecution. The object of torture is torture. The object of power is power.
Thematic references to solipsism, regarding pure Ingsoc, are made throughout the book's third part, implying that, according to Ingsoc, the universe exists entirely in the mind of the person. It is the job of the Ministry of Love (via torture and brainwashing) and, to a lesser extent, that of the Ministry of Truth (via false propaganda) to ensure that each person's mind is shaped to undying loyalty to the Party and its ideology. In these beliefs the person exists only as part of the collective, thus convincing the collective that nothing exists other than the goodness of the Party and the evil of other nations. This is the form of the conscious universe of the person and the collective. Thus the Party remains in total power.
The classes mix little, although the narrator describes an evening at the cinema, where proles and Party members both attend. The protagonist also is able to patronize a prole pub without attracting much attention — or so he thinks — and to visit the flat of O'Brien, a member of the Inner Party, on a pretext of borrowing a newer edition of the Newspeak dictionary.
In keeping with themes of secrecy, deception, and contradiction present in other aspects of this work, Ingsoc, through its propaganda, claims to be egalitarian. The Proles, and some members of the Outer Party, often are hideously exploited while the Party élite live comfortably, and goods are as scarce and costly as Ingsoc propaganda depicts them to have been under capitalism.
This fact, that the three ideologies are virtually indistinguishable in their tenets, is known to all three ruling oligarchies and is constantly denied via doublethink. This denial of similarity among them, and the three-fold, mutual vilification of each other permits eternal war among the three superstates. Without said war, the lower classes would lack focus for the hatred and triumph with which the Inner Parties psychologically dominate them.
Unexplained, in the novel, is how Ingsoc and its ruling Inner Party established and maintained control of the United Kingdom, Ireland, the British Commonwealth, and the entire Americas in a historically-short period, (roughly 30 years, per the novel's chronology). Goldstein's book claims Oceania was created "with the absorption of .... the British Empire by the United States".