Rose

Rose

[rohz]
Schneiderman, Rose, 1884-1972, American labor leader, b. Poland. She emigrated to the United States in 1890. After working as a lining stitcher in a cap factory, she was instrumental in getting women admitted to the United Cloth, Hat, and Cap Makers Union and participated (1905) in a successful strike. Probably the best-known American woman trade unionist, she was elected (1907) vice president of the New York branch of the Women's Trade Union League and was its sole organizer (1917-19) in the Eastern states. She was subsequently elected president (1918) of the New York branch and became (1928) national president of the National Women's Trade Union League. She served also as secretary (1937-44) of the New York state department of labor. In addition she was an official of the National Recovery Administration in the 1930s and a member of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's brain trust.
Rose, Gustav, 1798-1873, German mineralogist. He served as professor at the Univ. of Berlin from 1839. Noted especially as a crystallographer, he advanced the scientific study of rocks. His brother, Heinrich Rose, 1795-1864, an analytical chemist, was professor at the Univ. of Berlin from 1823. He demonstrated (1844) that niobium (columbium) and tantalum are different elements.
Rose, Irwin, 1926-, American biochemist, b. Brooklyn, N.Y., Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1952. Rose was on the faculty of Yale Medical School from 1954 to 1963 and a senior member of the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia from 1963 until 1995. He has been a researcher at the Univ. of California, Irvine, since 1997. In 2004 Rose shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Aaron Ciechanover and Avram Hershko for their discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. The three scientists elucidated the pathway through which protein degradation takes place in cells, and identified the molecules called ubiquitins as markers that indicate what proteins are to be broken down. Cancer and some degenerative diseases are believed to result from disruptions in this pathway.
Rose, Pete (Peter Edward Rose), 1941-, American baseball player, b. Cincinnati. The National League Rookie of the Year in 1963 and Most Valuable Player in 1973, Rose was a switch hitter who played outfield and infield positions; his career was spent with the Cincinnati Reds (1963-78, 1984-86), the Philadelphia Phillies (1979-83), and the Montreal Expos (1984). Nicknamed "Charlie Hustle," Rose won three National League batting titles (1968, 1969, 1973) and set the major-league record for hits (4,256), surpassing Ty Cobb's mark. He also set the major league record for games played (3,562) and hit safely in 44 consecutive games in 1978, setting a modern National League record. Rose was manager of the Cincinnati Reds from 1984 until 1989, when he was banned for life from baseball for betting activities after an investigation by Major League Baseball. In 1990 he spent five months in jail for tax evasion. Since then Rose has campaigned to regain his eligibility for the Hall of Fame, publicly admitting in 2004 that he bet on baseball and apologizing for it.

See his autobiographies (1989 and 2004).

rose, common name for some members of the Rosaceae, a large family of herbs, shrubs, and trees distributed over most of the earth, and for plants of the genus Rosa, the true roses.

The Rose Family

The family is especially abundant in E Asia, Europe, and North America, where species of almost half of the family's genera are indigenous, especially in the Pacific coastal area. Many of the Rosaceae are thorny, and most are characterized by the presence of stipules on the leaf, by flowers having five sets of parts, by a fleshy fruit, such as a rose hip or an apple, that is derived in large part from a cup-shaped enlargement of the flower stalk, and by the near absence of endosperm in the seed.

Although some groups of these plants are sometimes classed as separate families, most botanists consider them all to be a single family that represents a natural phylogenetic classification, i.e., most or all members have evolved from common ancestors. The largest of the approximately 110 genera (comprising a total of some 3,100 species) are Rubus (including the raspberry, blackberry, dewberry, loganberry, and other types of bramble), Spiraea (including the bridal wreath, meadowsweet, and hardhack), Rosa (the true roses), Crataegus (hawthorn), and Prunus (including the almond, apricot, blackthorn or sloe, cherry, nectarine, peach, and plum).

Economically the rose family is of enormous importance. It provides numerous temperate fruits including (besides species of Rubus and Prunus) the apple, loquat, medlar, pear, quince, and strawberry. The typically fragrant and beautiful flowers make many members of the family prized as ornamentals, e.g., the fruit trees and bushes mentioned and also the antelope brush, Christmasberry, mountain ash, pyracantha, and shadbush. Many genera have species that are native wildflowers of the United States; in addition to many of those above are Agrimonia (agrimony), Potentilla (cinquefoil), and Sanguisorba (burnet), which are also sometimes cultivated.

The True Roses

The most popular ornamentals of the family, and among the most esteemed of all cultivated plants, are the true roses. Rosa occurs indigenously in the north temperate zone and in tropical mountain areas, usually as erect or climbing shrubs with five-petaled fragrant flowers. Sometimes the foliage also is fragrant, as in the European sweetbrier, or eglantine. From many of the wild species have been developed the large number of cultivated varieties and hybrids having single or double blossoms that range in color from white and yellow to many shades of pink and red. Since many species are highly variable and hybridize easily, the classification of Rosa is sometimes difficult, and the wild type of some modern forms is not always known.

The rose has been a favorite flower in many lands since prehistoric times. It appears in the earliest art, poetry, and tradition. It has been used in innumerable ways in decoration. In ancient times it was used medically—Pliny lists 32 remedies made of its petals and leaves. Formerly it was eaten in salads and conserves. It was sacred to Aphrodite and was a favorite flower of the Romans, who spread its culture wherever their armies conquered. Among the old species are the cabbage rose and the damask rose, both native to the Caucasus; the latter especially is cultivated for the perfume oil attar of roses. The famous roses of England include the white rose that was the emblem of the house of York and the red rose of the house of Lancaster in the Wars of the Roses. The rambler rose, frequently grown on trellises and porches, and the tea and hybrid tea roses are of more recent origin, the result of modern rose culture, which really began when the East India Company's ships brought new everblooming or monthly roses from the Orient.

The rose is the emblem of England and the national flower of the United States. It is the official flower of New York state; the wild rose, of Iowa; the prairie rose, of North Dakota; and the American Beauty, of the District of Columbia. Practical uses of roses, besides their importance as a source of perfume, include a delicate-flavored jelly made from the fruits, called rose hips, of some wild species. Thorny rambling roses, such as the Oriental multiflora rose, are much used as hedge and erosion control plants in agriculture, highway landscaping, and wildlife preserves.

Classification

Roses are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Rosales, family Rosaceae.

Bibliography

See the American Rose Annual, issued by the American Rose Society; R. Genders, The Rose: A Complete Handbook (1965); S. M. Gault and P. M. Synge, The Dictionary of Roses in Color (1971).

In Gothic architecture, a decorated circular window, often glazed with stained glass, that first appeared in mid-12th-century cathedrals. It was used mainly at the western end of the nave and the ends of the transept. The bar tracery of a High Gothic rose window consisted of a series of radiating forms, each tipped by a pointed arch at the outside of the circle. The rose windows of Notre-Dame de Paris are particularly noteworthy. In later Flamboyant-style tracery, the radiating elements consisted of an intricate network of wavy, double-curved bars.

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Translucent, coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz found in pegmatites. Rose quartz is valued for its pale to rich pink colour, which is due to very small amounts of titanium. It has been carved since early times and has been faceted to provide gems of good brilliance. Its milky aspect is attributed to tiny, needlelike inclusions of rutile, which, when oriented, give the polished stone an asterism (optical phenomenon of a star-shaped figure) like that found in sapphire, but not as sharp or intense. Rose quartz occurs in Brazil, Madagascar, Sweden, Namibia, California, and Maine, among other sites.

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Shrub or small tree (Hibiscus syriacus, or Althaea syriaca) in the mallow family, native to eastern Asia but widely planted as an ornamental for its showy flowers. It can grow to 10 ft (3 m) and generally assumes a low-branching pyramid shape. The mallowlike flowers range from white and pinkish-lavender to purple, generally with a crimson base; some varieties have double flowers. The name also sometimes refers to the unrelated Aaron's-beard (Hypericum calycinum), a shrubby relative of St.-John's-wort.

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Prairie rose (Rosa setigera).

Any of about 100 species in the genus Rosa (family Rosaceae) characterized by their beautiful, fragrant flowers. Rosa species are probably the most widely recognized and universally favoured of ornamental flowering plants. Hundreds of varieties are cultivated in all types of settings, and there are many hybrids. Roses are susceptible to numerous diseases, most caused by fungi. The rose family contains about 3,000 species and accounts for 45percnt of the species in the rose order (Rosales). Other popular garden plants and ornamentals in the rose family include spirea, cinquefoil, hawthorn, mountain ash, and flowering cherry. The family also contains many important fruits, including the apple, peach, strawberry, pear, plum, apricot, almond, quince, blackberry, and raspberry. Plants of some species contain dangerous cyanide compounds. Many members have thorns or prickles.

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orig. Ikuko Toguri

(born July 4, 1916, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.) U.S. broadcaster. She was visiting Japan when she was stranded at the outbreak of World War II. In 1943 she began radio announcing for a propaganda program beamed at U.S. troops, and eventually she became one of 13 women announcers, all native speakers of American English, collectively known as Tokyo Rose. After the war she was convicted of treason and served six years in a U.S. prison. Mitigating information later came to light, and she was pardoned in 1977.

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orig. Isabel de Flores

(born April 20/30, 1586, Lima, Viceroyalty of Peru—died Aug. 24, 1617, Lima; canonized April 12, 1671; feast day August 23, formerly August 30) Patron saint of Peru and all of South America, the first person born in the Western Hemisphere to be canonized by the Roman Catholic church. Born to a wealthy family, she joined a Dominican order in 1606, overcoming her mother's objections. She went into seclusion in a hut in the family garden, where she lived with great austerity, fasting, wearing a crown of thorns, and sleeping on a bed of broken glass. She experienced many visions, particularly of the Devil. Only in her last three years did she leave her seclusion. Many miracles were reported after her death.

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(born April 14, 1941, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. baseball player. Rose began playing organized baseball at age eight. He played for the Cincinnati Reds (1963–78, 1984–86), the Philadelphia Phillies (1979–83), and the Montreal Expos (1984). His 4,256 career hits and 3,562 games played both remain all-time records, and his career mark for runs (2,165) is exceeded only by Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, and Hank Aaron. In 1989, after being investigated for allegedly betting on baseball games, including those of his own Reds, Rose was banned from the sport for life by the commissioner of baseball.

Learn more about Rose, Pete(r Edward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Isabel de Flores

(born April 20/30, 1586, Lima, Viceroyalty of Peru—died Aug. 24, 1617, Lima; canonized April 12, 1671; feast day August 23, formerly August 30) Patron saint of Peru and all of South America, the first person born in the Western Hemisphere to be canonized by the Roman Catholic church. Born to a wealthy family, she joined a Dominican order in 1606, overcoming her mother's objections. She went into seclusion in a hut in the family garden, where she lived with great austerity, fasting, wearing a crown of thorns, and sleeping on a bed of broken glass. She experienced many visions, particularly of the Devil. Only in her last three years did she leave her seclusion. Many miracles were reported after her death.

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(born April 14, 1941, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. baseball player. Rose began playing organized baseball at age eight. He played for the Cincinnati Reds (1963–78, 1984–86), the Philadelphia Phillies (1979–83), and the Montreal Expos (1984). His 4,256 career hits and 3,562 games played both remain all-time records, and his career mark for runs (2,165) is exceeded only by Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, and Hank Aaron. In 1989, after being investigated for allegedly betting on baseball games, including those of his own Reds, Rose was banned from the sport for life by the commissioner of baseball.

Learn more about Rose, Pete(r Edward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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