Close to the village is Westbury Camp which represents the remains of an iron age enclosed settlement, which has been designated as a Scheduled Ancient Monument.
Rodney Stoke was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Stoches, meaning 'a stockaded settlement' from the Old English stoc. In 1291 the place name was recorded as Stokgifford. The Giffords were Saxon nobility at the time of Edward the Confessor with Walter Gifford (then spelt Gifard) as the Earl of Buckingham.
The village was the home of, and is probably named after Sir John Rodney (b c1561, d 06.08.1612).
The first Baron Rodney was George Brydges Rodney, (February 1718 – May 24, 1792) a British naval admiral of Napoleonic times.
The church, dedicated to St. Leonard, was built around 1175. The interior of the church contains a screen, bearing the date 1624, the gift of Sir E. Rodney, It is a grade I listed building. which includes a representation of the martyrdom of St Erasmus, who was killed by having his entrails removed.