Roaming is divided into "SIM-based roaming" and "Username/password-based roaming", whereby the technical term "roaming" also encompasses roaming between networks of different network standards, such as e.g. WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) or GSM. Device equipment and functionality, such as SIM card capability, antenna and network interfaces, and power management, determine the access possibilities.
Using the example of WLAN/GSM roaming, the following scenarios can be differentiated (cf. GSM Association Permanent Reference Document AA.39):
Although these user/network scenarios focus on roaming from GSM Network Operator's network(s), clearly roaming can be bi-directional, i.e. from Public WLAN Operators to GSM Networks. Traditional roaming in networks of the same standard, e.g. from a WLAN to a WLAN or a GSM network to a GSM network, has already been described above and is likewise defined by the foreignness of the network based on the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register.
In the case of session continuity, seamless access to these services across different access types is provided.
The differentiation between home network and visited network is technically given by the type of subscriber entry in a specific network. If a subscriber has no entry in the home subscriber register of the network (e.g. Home Location Register (HLR) in GSM networks or local customer database in WLANs), the required subscriber data must first be requested by the visited network e.g. from the subscriber's home network in order that the subscriber can be authenticated and any authorization for using the network services can be checked. The "visiting" subscriber acquires an entry in a user database of the visited network (e.g. Visited Location Register (VLR)) and the authorized network services are enabled. For the roaming procedure in practice, the possibility of assigning the subscriber data is always indispensable in order that authentication, authorization and billing of the subscriber can be performed in the corresponding network. Thus, the term roaming is not linked to a specific network standard, but rather to the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register of the mobile radio network. If a subscriber can use his personal service profile, which he uses in the home network, in the visited network as well, this is also referred to as Global Service Roaming Capability.
The legal roaming business aspects negotiated between the roaming partners for billing of the services obtained are usually stipulated in so called roaming agreements. The GSM Association broadly outlines the content of such roaming agreements in standardized form for its members. For the legal aspects of authentication, authorization and billing of the visiting subscriber, the roaming agreements typically can comprise minimal safety standards, as e.g. location update procedures or financial security or warranty procedures.
The details of the roaming process differ among types of cellular networks, but in general, the process resembles the following:
If a call is made to a roaming mobile, the public telephone network routes the call to the phone's registered service provider, who then must route it to the visited network. That network must then provide an internal temporary phone number to the mobile. Once this number is defined, the home network forwards the incoming call to the temporary phone number, which terminates at the host network and is forwarded to the mobile.
In order that a subscriber is able to "latch" on to a visited network, a roaming agreement needs to be in place between the visited network and the home network. This agreement is established after a series of testing processes called IREG (International Roaming Expert Group) and TADIG (Transferred Account Data Interchange Group). While the IREG testing is to test the proper functioning of the established communication links, the TADIG testing is to check the billability of the calls.
The usage by a subscriber in a visited network is captured in a file called the TAP (Transferred Account Procedure) for GSM / CIBER (Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Roamer) for CDMA, AMPS etc... file and is transferred to the home network. A TAP/CIBER file contains details of the calls made by the subscriber viz. location, calling party, called party, time of call and duration, etc. The TAP/CIBER files are rated as per the tariffs charged by the visited operator. The home operator then bills these calls to its subscribers and may charge a mark-up/tax applicable locally. As recently many carriers launched own retail rate plans and bundles for Roaming, TAP records are generally used for wholesale Inter-Operators settlements only.
Roaming fees are traditionally charged on a per-minute basis and they are typically determined by the service provider's pricing plan. Several carriers in the United States and also nowadays in India have eliminated these fees in their nationwide pricing plans. All of the major carriers now offer pricing plans that allow consumers to purchase nationwide roaming-free minutes. However, carriers define "nationwide" in different ways. For example, some carriers define "nationwide" as anywhere in the U.S., whereas others define it as anywhere within the carrier's network.
An operator intending to provide roaming services to visitors publishes the tariffs that would be charged in his network at least sixty days prior to its implementation under normal situations. The visited operator tariffs may include tax, discounts etc. and would be based on duration in case of voice calls. For data calls, the charging may be based on the data volume sent and received. Some operators also charge a separate fee for call setup i.e. for the establishment of a call. This charge is called a Flagfall charge.
This type of roaming refers to the ability of moving from one region to another region inside national coverage of the mobile operator. Initially, operators may have provide commercial offers restricted to a region (sometimes to a town). Due to the success of GSM and the decrease in cost, regional roaming is rarely offered to clients except in nations with wide geographic areas like the USA, Russia, India, etc., in which there are a number of regional operators.
This type of roaming refers to the ability to move from one mobile operator to another in the same country. For example, a subscriber of T-Mobile USA who is allowed to roam on AT&T Mobility's service would have national roaming rights. For commercial and license reasons, this type of roaming is not allowed unless under very specific circumstances and under regulatory scrutiny. This has often taken place when a new company is assigned a mobile telephony license, to create a more competitive market by allowing the new entrant to offer coverage comparable to that of established operators (by requiring the existing operators to allow roaming while the new entrant has time to build up its own network). In a country like India, where the number of regional operators is high and the country is divided into circles, this type of roaming is common.
This type of roaming refers to the ability to move to a foreign service provider's network. It is, consequently, of particular interest to international tourists and business travellers.
Broadly speaking, international roaming is easiest using the GSM standard, as it is used by over 80% of the world's mobile operators. However, even then, there may be problems, since countries have allocated different frequency bands for GSM communications (there are two groups of countries: most GSM countries use 900/1800 MHz, but the United States and some other countries in the Americas have allocated 850/1900 MHz): for a phone to work in a country with a different frequency allocation, it must support one or both of that country's frequencies, and thus be tri or quad band.
This type of roaming refers to the ability to move seamlessly between mobile networks of different technologies.
Since mobile communication technologies have evolved independently across continents, there is significant challenge in achieving seamless roaming across these technologies. Typically, these technologies were implemented in accordance with technological standards laid down by different industry bodies and hence the name.
A number of the standards making industry bodies have come together to define and achieve interoperability between the technologies as a means to achieve inter-standards roaming. This is currently an ongoing effort.
The concept of Mobile signature Roaming is: an access point should be able to get a Mobile Signature from any end-user, even if the AP and the end-user have not contracted a commercial relationship with the same MSSP. Otherwise, an AP would have to build commercial terms with as many MSSPs as possible, and this might be a cost burden. This means that a Mobile Signature transaction issued by an Application Provider should be able to reach the appropriate MSSP, and this should be transparent for the AP(reference).
Network elements belonging to the same Operator but located in different areas (a typical situation where assignment of local licenses is a common practice)pair depends on the switch and its location.Hence, software changes and a greater processing capability are required, but furthermore this situation could introduce the fairly new concept of roaming on a per MSC basis instead of per Operator basis.But this is actually a burden ,so it is avoided
Roaming calls within a local tariff area, when at least one of the phones belong outside that area. Usually implemented with trombone routing also known as tromboning
The routing of trombone roaming.