Both traditional religious and secular scholars agree that ritual washing in Judaism was derived by the Rabbis of the Talmud from a more extensive set of ritual washing and purity practices in use in the days of the Temple in Jerusalem, based on various verses in the Hebrew Bible and received traditions. There is disagreement, however, about the origins and meanings of these practices. This article first describes these practices as they exist in contemporary traditional Judaism, then discusses various alternative perspectives on their nature, origins, and meaning.
Others require full immersion in a special body of water, such as a spring, stream, or mikva:
The rabbis of the Talmud derived the requirement of washing the hands as a consequence of the statement in Leviticus 15:11
and from Psalms 26:6
The Talmud inferred the specific requirements of hand-washing from these passages.
The general Hebrew term for ritual hand washing is netilat yadayim, meaning lifting up of the hands. The term "the washing of hands" after evacuation is sometimes referred to as "to wash asher yatzar" referring to the bracha (blessing) said which starts with these words.
Halakha (Jewish law) requires that the water used for ritual washing be naturally pure, unused, not contain other substances, and not be discoloured. The water also must be poured from a vessel as a human act, on the basis of references in the Bible to this practice, e.g. Elisha pouring water upon the hands of Elijah. Water should be poured on each hand at least twice. A clean dry substance should be used instead if water is unavailable
The Babylonian Talmud discusses two types of washing at meals: washing before a meal is described as first waters (the Hebrew term is mayim rishonim), and after a meal is known as last waters (the Hebrew term is mayim aharonim). The first term has generally fallen from contemporary usage; the second term has stuck.
The Gemarrah of the Babylonian talmud contains homilectic descriptions of the importance of the practice, including an argument that washing before meals is so important that neglecting it is tantamount to unchastity, and risks divine punishment in the form of sudden destruction or poverty. The discussion of mayim acharonim, washing after meals, contains a suggestion that washing after meals, as a health measure, is the more important of the two washings, on grounds that the salt used as a preservative in food could cause blindness if the eyes were rubbed without washing.,
Washing after meals is normative in Orthodox Judaism. Although it was once not widely practiced (for example, until recently it did not appear in many Orthodox Passover Haggadahs) it has undergone something of a revival and has become more widely observed in recent years, particularly for special meals such as the Shabbat and Jewish holidays. Conservative Judaism has supported discontinuing the practice of mayim acharonim on the grounds that the rabbis of the Talmud instituted it as a health measure, and since modern foods no longer contain preservatives so dangerous as to cause blindness upon contact with the eyes, washing the hands after meals is no longer required and can be discontinued by contemporary rabbinic decision.
The standard Passover seder has an additional, third washing, prior to eating the green vegetable, which is considered an act of eating separate from the meal. In Orthodox Judaism, it also has the same types of washings as any other meal, one before the meal and one after. Only the one before the meal is generally done outside Orthodox Judaism
According to the Shulchan Aruch, a person should wash both hands before prayer, based on a tradition requiring ritual purification upon entering the Temple in Jerusalem, in whose absence prayer, in Orthodox Judaism, serves in its place.
In Orthodox Judaism (and, in some cases, in Conservative Judaism), Kohanim, members of the priestly class, offer the Priestly Blessing before the congregation on certain occasions. Before performing their offices, they are required to wash their hands. Judaism traditionally traces this requirement to the Torah:
It is customary for Levites to pour the water over the hands of the Kohanim and to assist them in other ways. In many communities, washing the feet before the Priestly Blessing is not practiced in the absence of a Temple in Jerusalem.
The Talmud states God commanded Jews to wash the hands and provides the text of the netilat yadaim blessing still in use. . According to the Shulchan Aruch a person who sleeps for at least 20 minutes is required to wash upon arising, and says the natilat yadayim blessing.
This article discusses the requirements of immersion in Rabbinic Judaism and its descendents. Some other branches of Judaism, such as Falasha Judaism, have substantially different practices including the requiriment of an actual spring or stream.
The Torah prescribes rituals addressing the skin condition known as Tzaraath and unusual genital discharges in a man or women (Zav/Zavah), which required special sacrifices and rituals in the days of the Temple in Jerusalem which included immersion in a Mikvah. In addition, a period of ritual impurity following a seminal discharge (Keri) and a during and following a women's Niddah period around menstruation ended with ritual immersion.
The practice of checking for Tazriah fell out of use with the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and the end of sacrificial rites. However, each of the other requirements remains in effect to some extent in Orthodox Judaism and (to a lesser degree) in Conservative Judaism.
Niddah remains fully observed in Orthodox Judaism and normative in Conservative Judaism. Women's ritual immersion prior to resuming sexual relations following their niddah period remains the principal use of contemporary Mikvahs.
Maimonides wrote a responsum lifting the decree of Ezra, based on an opinion in the Talmud stating that it had failed to be observed by a majority of the community and the Jewish people found themselves unable to sustain it. However, Maimonides continued to follow the keri restrictions as a matter of personal observance. Since the decree of Maimonides, observance of the rules of keri and hence regular Mikvah use by men fell into disuse in many communities. Hasidic Judaism, however, revived the practice of regular mikva use, advocating regular daily mikva use as a way of achieving spiritual purity. The growth of Hasidic Judaism resulted in a revival of mikva use by men. In addition, some Sephardic and Mizrahi communities continued to observe the rules of keri throughout.
According to Leviticus, anyone who comes into contact with or carries any creature that hadn't been deliberately killed by shechita was regarded by the biblical regulations as having made themselves unclean by doing so, and therefore was compelled to immerse their entire body. This regulation is immediately preceded by the rule against eating anything still containing blood, and according to biblical scholars this is also the context of the regulation about not eating non-sacrifices - that the regulation only treats such consumption as unclean if there is a risk of blood still remaining within the carcass. In the version of this regulation in Deuteronomy, eating the bodies of such creatures isn't described as making an individual ritually impure, nor requires the eater to wash their body, but instead such consumption is expressely forbidden, although the creature is allowed to be passed on to a stranger, who is permitted to eat it.
Anyone who came into contact with a human corpse, or grave, was so ritually impure that they had to be sprinkled with the water produced from the red heifer ritual, in order to become ritually pure again; however, the person who carried out the red heifer ritual and who sprinkled the water, was to be treated as having become ritually impure by doing so. According to biblical scholars, this ritual derives from the same origin as the ritual described in Deuteronomy for a group of people to atone for murder by an unknown perpetrator, according to which a heifer is killed at a stream, and hands are washed over it; biblical scholars believe that these are both ultimately cases of sympathetic magic, and similar rituals existed in Greek and Roman mythology. The masoretic text describes the water produced from the red heifer ritual as a sin offering; some English translations discount this detail, because it differs from other sin offerings by not being killed at the altar, although biblical scholars believe that this demonstrates a failure by these translations to understand the meaning of sin offerings.
In the early periods the body was washed in a standard mikvah, and this is frequently the form of the ritual in the present day, but the traditional washing ceremony, known as tahara, became quite detailed over time. A special building for the corpse-washing existed in the cemetery in 15th century Prague, a practice which obtains in many Jewish communities today; a mikvah is provided at a number of ancient tombs. Female corpses are traditionally cleaned only by other females, and males only by other males.
Between death and the traditional ceremony, the body is placed on the ground, and covered with a sheet, and at the start of the traditional ceremony, the body is lifted from the ground onto a special board or slab (a tahara board), so that it lies facing the door, with a white sheet underneath. The clothes are then removed from the corpse (if they were not been removed when the corpse was placed on the ground), and at this point is recited by the enactors of the ritual, as it refers to the removal of filthy clothes. Following this, the body is thoroughly rubbed with lukewarm water, with the mouth of the corpse covered so that water does not enter it; the next part of the ritual is the pouring of water over the head, while is quoted, since it refers to the sprinkling of water to produce cleanliness; and then each limb is washed downwards, while and the following verses, which describe the beauty of elements of the body, are spoken. Finally, nine measures of cold water are poured over the body while it is upright, which is the core element of the ceremony, and it is then dried (according to some customs), and enshrouded; in ancient times the hair and nails were also cut, but by the 19th century the hair was merely combed, and the nails were just cleansed with a special pin, unless their length is excessive. After the ceremony, the tahara board is washed and dried, but is kept facing the same way, as there is a superstition with the belief that turning it the other way will cause another person to die within 3 days. Many communities have replaced the pouring of nine measures by immersion in a specially constructed mikva.
A more elaborate ceremony, known as the grand washing (rehizah gedolah), is available for the corpses of the more significant individuals; Hillel the Elder is traditionally credited with its invention. According to this latter form of ceremony, the water used for washing was perfumed by rose, myrtle, or aromatic spices; the use of spices was an ancient practice, and the Mishnah especially mentions the washing ceremonies using myrtle.
The biblical regulations of Yom Kippur require the officiating Jewish High Priest to bathe himself in water after sending off the scapegoat to Azazel, and a similar requirement was imposed on the person who lead the scapegoat away, and the person who burned the sacrifices during the rituals of the day. The Mishnah states that the High Priest had to immerse himself five times, and his hands and feet had to be washed ten times.
In modern Orthodox Judaism, the laity including men immerse themselves on the day prior to the day of Yom Kippur and often do so before the three pilgrimage festivals, and before Rosh Hashanah; Haredi Jews additionally immerse themselves at least before a Shabbat, and Hasidic Jews do so daily before morning prayers.
Both Orthodox and Conservative Judaism currently have multiple views on the reason for contemporary observance of ritual washing and immersion obligation.
In Orthodox Judaims, opinion is generally split between a view that maintains that those Biblical rules related to ritual purity that are possible to observe in the absence of a Temple and a Red heifer remain in force and Jews remain Biblically obligated to observe such of them as they can, and a view that Biblical ritual impurity requirements apply only in the presence of a Temple in Jerusalem and the current rules represent only rabbinic ordinances, practices decreed by the Rabbis in memory of the Temple.
In December 2006, Conservative Judaism's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards issued three responsa on the subject of Niddah. All three ruled the traditional requirements of ritual washing remained in effect for Conservative Jews (with some leniencies and liberalization of interpretation), but disagreed on the reasoning for continuing this practices as well as on the validity of specific leniencies. Two of the opinions reflect reasoning similar to the respective Orthodox views (Biblical requirements or rabbinic ordinances enacted in remembrance of the Temple.) A third opinion expressed the view that Conversative Judaism should disconnect ritual purity practices from the Temple in Jerusalem or its memory, and offered a new apprach based on what it called the concept of holiness rather than the concept of purity. Thus, Conservative ideology, under its philosophy of pluralism, supports a range of views on this subject, from views similar to the Orthodox view to views expressing a need for a contemporary reorientation.
According to the editors of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, the phrase netilat yadaim referring to washing of the hands, literally "lifting of the hands", is derived either from Psalm 134:2, or from the Greek word natla (αντλίον), in reference to the jar of water used. The Jewish Encyclopedia states that many historic Jewish writers, and particularly the Pharisees, took it to mean that water had to be poured out onto uplifted hands, and that they could not be considered clean until water had reached the wrist. This is commented on by the Synoptic Gospels, which state that these groups didn't eat until they had washed their hands to the wrist, but the Gospels castigates them for this, arguing that it was only followed as an ostentatious tradition, ignoring religious obligations, and that washing the hands was worthless without inward religious obligations also being adhered to, and insignificant if the inward obligations, such as giving all of one's possessions to the poor, were followed.
According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, the historic requirement for priests to first wash their hands, together with the classical rabbinical belief that non-priest were also required to wash their hands before taking part in a holy act, such as prayer, was adhered to very strongly, to the extent that Christianity adopted the practice, and provided worshippers with fountains and basins of water in Churches, in a similar manner to the molten sea in the Jerusalem Temple functioning as a laver. Although Christianity did not adopt the requirement for priests to wash feet before worship, in Islam the practice was extended to the congregation and expanded into wudu.
According to Peake's Commentary on the Bible, Biblical scholars regard the requirement of Kohanim washing their hands prior to the Priestly Blessing as an example of the taboo against the profane making contact with the sacred, and similar practices are present in other religions of the period and region. The Jewish Encyclopedia relates that according to Herodotus the Egyptian priests were required to wash themselves twice a day and twice a night in cold water, and according to Hesiod the Greeks were forbidden from pouring out the black wine to any deity in the morning, unless they had first washed their hands.
According to the 1906 Jewish encyclopedia, The Letter of Aristeas states that creators of the Septuagint washed their hands in the sea each morning before prayer; Josephus states that this custom was the reason for the traditional location of synagogues near water. Biblical scholars regard this custom as an imitation by the laity of the behaviour of the priests. A baraita offers, as justification for the ritual of hand-washing after waking, the belief that a spirit of impurity rests upon each person during the night, and will not leave until the person's hands are washed, and the Zohar argues that body is open to demonic possession during sleep because the soul temporarily leaves the body during it; the kabbalah argues that death awaits anyone who walks more than four yards from their bed without ablution. According to , the cup containing the water has to be able to carry a certain amount of water, and it should have two handles.
Peake's Commentary on the Bible states that among the Israelites there was a taboo against the sacred mixing with the profane, and consequently a requirement to regain ritual purity before committing a sacred act. According to Peake's commentary, the Priestly Code specifies that individuals were washed before they could become members of the Jewish priesthood, and similarly requires Levites to be cleansed before they assume their work.
Peake's Commentary on the Bible states that although Biblical rules regarding ritual purification following bodily discharges clearly have sanitory uses, they ultimately originated from the taboos against contact with blood and semen, due to the belief that these contained life, more than any other bodily fluid, or any other aspect of the body .
R' Aryeh Kaplan in Waters of Life connects the laws of impurity to the narrative in the beginning of Genesis. According to Genesis, By eating of the fruit Adam and Eve had brought death into the world. Kaplan points out that most of the laws of impurity relate to some form of death (or in the case of Niddah the loss of a potential life). One who comes into contact with one of the forms of death must than immerse in water which is described in Genesis as flowing out of the Garden of Eden (the source of life) in order to cleanse oneself of this contact with death (and by extension of sin).