Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers known generically as polyamides and first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. Nylon is one of the most commonly used polymers.
Nylon is a thermoplastic
silky material, first used commercially in a nylon-bristled toothbrush
(1938), followed more famously by women's “nylons” stockings
(1940). It is made of repeating units
linked by peptide bonds
(another name for amide bonds
) and is frequently referred to as polyamide
(PA). Nylon was the first commercially
successful polymer and the first synthetic fiber
to be made entirely from coal
, water, and air. These are formed into monomers
of intermediate molecular weight
, which are then reacted to form long polymer
Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk and substituted for it in many different products after silk became scarce during World War II. It replaced silk in military applications such as parachutes and flak vests, and was used in many types of vehicle tires.
Nylon fibers are used in many applications, including fabrics, bridal veils, carpets, musical strings, and rope.
Solid nylon is used for mechanical parts such as gears and other low- to medium-stress components previously cast in metal. Engineering-grade nylon is processed by extrusion, casting, and injection molding. Solid nylon is used in hair combs. Type 6/6 Nylon 101 is the most common commercial grade of nylon, and Nylon 6 is the most common commercial grade of molded nylon. Nylon is available in glass-filled variants which increase structural and impact strength and rigidity, and molybdenum sulfide-filled variants which increase lubricity.
Aramids are another type of polyamide with quite different chain structures which include aromatic groups in the main chain. Such polymers make excellent ballistic fibres.
Nylons are condensation copolymers
formed by reacting equal parts of a diamine
and a dicarboxylic acid
, so that peptide bonds
form at both ends of each monomer in a process analogous to polypeptide biopolymers
. Chemical elements
included are carbon
, and oxygen
. The numerical suffix specifies the numbers of carbons
donated by the monomers; the diamine first and the diacid second. The most common variant is nylon 6-6
which refers to the fact that the diamine (hexamethylene diamine
) and the diacid (adipic acid
) each donate 6 carbons to the polymer chain. As with other regular copolymers
, the "repeating unit" consists of one of each monomer, so that they alternate in the chain. Since each monomer in this copolymer has the same reactive group
on both ends, the direction of the amide bond
reverses between each monomer, unlike natural polyamide proteins
which have overall directionality: C terminal
→ N terminal
. In the laboratory, nylon 6,6 can also be made using adipoyl chloride
instead of adipic
It is difficult to get the proportions exactly correct, and deviations can lead to chain termination at molecular weights less than a desirable 10,000 daltons
). To overcome this problem, a crystalline
, solid "nylon salt
" can be formed at room temperature
, using an exact 1:1 ratio
of the acid
and the base
to neutralize each other. Heated to 285 °C, the salt reacts to form nylon polymer. Above 20,000 daltons, it is impossible to spin the chains into yarn
, so to combat this, some acetic acid
is added to react with a free amine end group during polymer elongation to limit the molecular weight. In practice, and especially for 6,6, the monomers are often combined in a water solution. The water used to make the solution is evaporated under controlled conditions, and the increasing concentration of "salt" is polymerized to the final molecular weight.
DuPont patented nylon 6,6, so in order to compete, other companies (particularly the German BASF) developed the homopolymer nylon 6, or polycaprolactam — not a condensation polymer, but formed by a ring-opening polymerization (alternatively made by polymerizing aminocaproic acid). The peptide bond within the caprolactam is broken with the exposed active groups on each side being incorporated into two new bonds as the monomer becomes part of the polymer backbone. In this case, all amide bonds lie in the same direction, but the properties of nylon 6 are sometimes indistinguishable from those of nylon 6,6 — except for melt temperature (N6 is lower) and some fiber properties in products like carpets and textiles. There is also nylon 9.
Nylon 5,10, made from pentamethylene diamine and sebacic acid, was studied by Carothers even before nylon 6,6 and has superior properties, but is more expensive to make. In keeping with this naming convention, "nylon 6,12" (N-6,12) or "PA-6,12" is a copolymer of a 6C diamine and a 12C diacid. Similarly for N-5,10 N-6,11; N-10,12, etc. Other nylons include copolymerized dicarboxylic acid/diamine products that are not based upon the monomers listed above. For example, some aromatic nylons are polymerized with the addition of diacids like terephthalic acid (→ Kevlar) or isophthalic acid (→ Nomex), more commonly associated with polyesters. There are copolymers of N-6,6/N6; copolymers of N-6,6/N-6/N-12; and others. Because of the way polyamides are formed, nylon would seem to be limited to unbranched, straight chains. But "star" branched nylon can be produced by the condensation of dicarboxylic acids with polyamines having three or more amino groups.
The general reaction is:
A molecule of water is given off and the nylon is formed. Its properties are determined by the R and R' groups in the monomers. In nylon 6,6, R' = 6C and R = 4C alkanes, but one also has to include the two carboxyl carbons in the diacid to get the number it donates to the chain. In Kevlar, both R and R' are benzene
The Federal Trade Commission
's definition for Nylon Fiber: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polyamide in which less than 85% of the amide-linkages are attached directly (-CO-NH-) to two aliphatic groups.
- A synthetic thermoplastic fiber (Nylon melts/glazes easily at relatively low temperatures)
- Round, smooth, and shiny filament fibers
- cross sections can be either
- trilobal to imitate silk
- multilobal to increase staple like appearance and hand
- Its most widely used structures are multifilament, monofilament, staple or tow and is available as partially drawn or as finished filaments.
- Regular nylon has a round cross section and is perfectly uniform. The filaments are generally completely transparent unless they have been delustered or solution dyed. Thus, they are microscopically recognized as glass rods.
- Molecular chains of nylon are long and straight variations but have no side chains or linkages.
- Cold drawing (step 18 on the model) can align the chains so they are oriented with the lengthwise direction and are highly crystalline.
- Nylon is related chemically to the protein fibers silk and wool.
- They both have similar dye sites but nylon has many fewer dye sites than wool.
Basic concepts of nylon production
- The first approach: combining molecules with an acid (COOH) group on each end are reacted with two chemicals that contain amine(NH2)groups on each end.
This process creates nylon 6,6, made of hexamethylene diamine with six carbon atoms and acidipic acid, as well as six carbon atoms.
- The second approach: a compound has an acid at one end and an amine at the other and is polymerized to form a chain with repeating units of(-NH-[CH2]n-CO-)x.
- In other words, nylon 6 is made from a single six-carbon substance called caprolactam.
- In this equation, if n=5, then nylon 6 is the assigned name. (may also be referred to as polymer)
- Pleats and creases can be heat-set at higher temperatures
- Nylon is very easy to dye, but Nylon 6,6 is not
- Better dye Affinity
- Softer Hand
- Greater elasticity and elastic recovery
- Better weathering properties; better sunlight resistance
The producers of nylon include: Honeywell Nylon Inc., Invista, Wellman Inc. among many others. The Dupont Company, is the most famous pioneer of the nylon we know today.
- Variation of luster: nylon has the ability to be very lustrous, semilustrous or dull.
- Durability: its high tenacity fibers are used for seatbelts, tire cords, ballistic cloth and other uses.
- High elongation
- Excellent abrasion resistance
- Highly resilient (nylon fabrics are heat-set)
- Paved the way for easy-care garments
- High resistance to:
- insects, fungi and animals
- molds, mildew, rot
- many chemicals
- Used in carpets and nylon stockings
- Melts instead of burning
- Used in many military applications
Above their melting temperatures
like nylon are amorphous solids
or viscous fluids
in which the chains approximate random coils
. Below Tm
, amorphous regions alternate with regions which are lamellar crystals
The amorphous regions contribute elasticity and the crystalline regions contribute strength and rigidity. The planar
amide (-CO-NH-) groups are very polar
, so nylon forms multiple hydrogen bonds
among adjacent strands. Because the nylon backbone is so regular and symmetrical, especially if all the amide bonds are in the trans configuration
, nylons often have high crystallinity and make excellent fibers. The amount of crystallinity depends on the details of formation, as well as on the kind of nylon. Apparently it can never be quenched
from a melt
as a completely amorphous solid.
Nylon 6,6 can have multiple parallel strands aligned with their neighboring peptide bonds at coordinated separations of exactly 6 and 4 carbons for considerable lengths, so the carbonyl oxygens and amide hydrogens can line up to form interchain hydrogen bonds repeatedly, without interruption. Nylon 5,10 can have coordinated runs of 5 and 8 carbons. Thus parallel (but not antiparallel) strands can participate in extended, unbroken, multi-chain β-pleated sheets, a strong and tough supermolecular structure similar to that found in natural silk fibroin and the β-keratins in feathers. (Proteins have only an amino acid α-carbon separating sequential -CO-NH- groups.) Nylon 6 will form uninterrupted H-bonded sheets with mixed directionalities, but the β-sheet wrinkling is somewhat different. The three-dimensional disposition of each alkane hydrocarbon chain depends on rotations about the 109.47° tetrahedral bonds of singly-bonded carbon atoms.
When extruded into fibers through pores in an industrial spinneret, the individual polymer chains tend to align because of viscous flow. If subjected to cold drawing afterwards, the fibers align further, increasing their crystallinity, and the material acquires additional tensile strength. In practice, nylon fibers are most often drawn using heated rolls at high speeds.
Block nylon tends to be less crystalline, except near the surfaces due to shearing stresses during formation. Nylon is clear and colorless, or milky, but is easily dyed. Multistranded nylon cord and rope is slippery and tends to unravel. The ends can be melted and fused with a heat source such as a flame or electrode to prevent this.
When dry, polyamide is a good electrical insulator. However, polyamide is hygroscopic. The absorption of water will change some of the material's properties such as its electrical resistance. Nylon is less absorbent than wool or cotton.
, and other individuals and corporations worked diligently during the first few months of World War II
to find a way to replace Asian silk
with nylon in parachutes
. It was also used to make tires
, and other military
supplies. It was even used in the production of a high-grade paper for U.S. currency
. At the outset of the war, cotton
accounted for more than 80% of all fibers used and manufactured, and wool
fibers accounted for the remaining 20%. By August 1945, manufactured fibers had taken a market share of 25% and cotton had dropped.
Some of the terpolymers based upon nylon are used every day in packaging. Nylon has been used for meat wrappings and sausage sheaths.
Use in composites
Nylon can be used as the matrix material in composite materials
, with reinforcing fibres like glass or carbon fiber, and has a higher density
than pure nylon. Such thermoplastic composites (25% glass fibre) are frequently used in car components next to the engine, such as exhaust manifolds, where the good heat resistance of such materials makes them feasible competitors to metals.
Hydrolysis and degradation
All nylons are susceptible to hydrolysis, especially by strong acids
, a reaction essentially the reverse of the synthetic reaction shown above. The molecular weight
of nylon products so attacked drops fast, and cracks form quickly at the affected zones. Lower members of the nylons (such as nylon 6) are affected more than higher members such as nylon 12. This means that nylon parts cannot be used in contact with sulphuric acid
for example, such as the electrolyte used in lead-acid batteries
. When being molded, nylon must be dried to prevent hydrolysis
in the molding machine barrel since water at high temperatures can also degrade the polymer. The reaction is of the type
In 1940 John W. Eckelberry of DuPont stated that the letters "nyl" were arbitrary and the "on" was copied from the suffixes of other fibers such as cotton
. A later publication by DuPont (Context
, vol. 7, no. 2, 1978
) explained that the name was originally intended to be "No-Run" ("run" meaning "unravel"), but was modified to avoid making such an unjustified claim and to make the word sound better. The story goes that Carothers changed one letter at a time until DuPont's management was satisfied. But he was not involved in the nylon project during the last year of his life, and committed suicide before the name was coined.
Two theories about the origin of the name claim that it is an acronym of "Now you've lost, Old Nippon" (N.Y.L.O.N.), or that it stands for "New York-London". In the latter case, it is claimed that these were the two cities where the product was researched and developed, or that the inspiration came from a New York to London airplane ticket. There is no evidence for the 'airline ticket' theory, though some compelling evidence of the former from contemporary researchers at Oxford University who assisted in development.
- Textiles by Sara J. Kadolph, ISBN 0131187694
For historical perspectives on nylon, see the Documents List of "The Stocking Story: You Be The Historian"
at the Smithsonian website, by The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution