Definitions

Riga

Riga

[ree-guh]
Riga, city (1992 est. pop. 901,700), capital of Latvia, on the Daugava (Western Dvina) River near its entry into the Gulf of Riga. A major Baltic port, it is also a rail junction, a military base, and an industrial and cultural center. Among Riga's industries are machine building, metalworking, shipbuilding and repairing, woodworking, food processing, and the manufacture of diesel engines, streetcars, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electrical apparatus, radio and telephone equipment, meteorological instruments, textiles, building materials, and paper.

Points of Interest

Riga is the site of a university (est. 1919), the Latvian Academy of Sciences (1946), and numerous other educational and cultural institutions. The old section, or Hansa town, of Riga is circled by a park-lined moat and includes the ancient castle of the Livonian Knights (rebuilt at various periods), the 13th-century cathedral (rebuilt 16th cent., now Lutheran), and the Parliament building (19th cent.). The famous Hanseatic House of the Blackheads (14th cent.), the town hall, and the Church of St. Peter with a steeple 412 ft (126 m) high were largely destroyed during World War II, and their rebuilding was not completed until after the end of Soviet rule. The old town, with its narrow, cobbled streets lined with gabled dwellings and warehouses, has retained much of its medieval character.

History

The site had long been occupied by Baltic tribes when the monk Meinhard built a monastery c.1190 among a settlement of Livs. German merchants established a community at Riga in 1158. Bishop Albert of Livonia transferred his seat there in 1201 and founded the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, or Livonian Knights, a German military religious order whose mission was to spread Christianity in the Baltic region. The knights also established a trading station at Riga.

The city, which became an archiepiscopal see in 1254 and a member of the Hanseatic League in 1282, developed into a major commercial and handicraft center. Its favorable strategic location made it an intermediary in Russian trade with Western Europe. Although it belonged to the domain of the Livonian Knights, Riga maintained a semi-independent existence under its archbishops and German merchants, and it controlled a large part of Livonia.

Riga's acceptance of the Reformation in 1522 definitively ended the power of the archbishops there. After the dissolution of the Livonian Order in 1561, Riga was briefly independent and then passed (1581) to Poland, despite attempts by Ivan IV of Russia to seize it. Polish efforts to reintroduce Catholicism made the capture of Riga in 1621 by King Gustavus II of Sweden a welcome event for the Protestant citizens. The Swedes granted self-government to the city.

Captured (1710) by Czar Peter I during the Northern War, Riga and the rest of Swedish Livonia were ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Nystadt in 1721. Having declined during the 17th cent., Riga's commercial importance revived in the 18th and particularly with the coming of the railroad in the 19th. The city became second only to St. Petersburg as Russia's leading port and was the center of Europe's timber trade.

A leading Russian industrial center from the second half of the 19th cent., Riga had the third largest number of industrial workers (after Moscow and St. Petersburg) by the 1890s. The city was a stronghold of the Russian Social Democratic party and played an important role in the Revolution of 1905. German troops occupied Riga in 1917. After World War I, the independence of Latvia was proclaimed at Riga, which became the new country's capital.

When Latvia was incorporated into the USSR in 1940, Riga was made the capital of the Latvian SSR. During World War II the city was again occupied (1941) by the Germans, from whom it was retaken (1944) by the Soviet army. The Soviet Union encouraged non-Latvian migration to the city. By 1975 less than 40% of its inhabitants were ethnically Latvian. Riga again became the capital of independent Latvia in Sept., 1991.

Riga, Gulf of, eastern arm of the Baltic Sea, bordering on Estonia and on Latvia. At its mouth it is nearly closed off by the Estonian island of Saaremaa. The gulf, which is frozen from December to April, receives the Western Dvina (Daugava) River. Riga and Pärnu are the chief ports.
Riga, Treaty of, either of two peace treaties signed at Riga, Latvia. By the Treaty of Riga of 1920, between the USSR and Latvia, the USSR recognized Latvian independence. The Treaty of Riga of 1921, between the USSR and Poland, followed a truce concluded late in 1920. The war between Poland and the USSR (1920) had been precipitated largely by the demand of Poland that its eastern border of 1772 be restored. The treaty terms, which fixed the Russo-Polish border, did not satisfy the claims of the victorious Poles, but they awarded to Poland large parts of Belorussia and of Ukraine. Nullified by the German and Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, the treaty was replaced in 1945 by a new Soviet-Polish border agreement.

Large gulf of the Baltic Sea. Bounded by Latvia and Estonia, it covers about 7,000 sq mi (18,000 sq km). The gulf, icebound from December to April, has a maximum depth of 177 ft (54 m). The coasts are mostly low and sandy, and several important rivers, including the Western Dvina, reach the sea there. Several ports and resorts, including Riga, line its shores.

Learn more about Riga, Gulf of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

City (pop., 2000 prelim.: 764,328), capital of Latvia. Riga is situated on both banks of the Western Dvina River, above its mouth on the Gulf of Riga. It was founded as a trading post in 1201 on the site of an ancient Liv settlement and joined the Hanseatic League in 1282. In the Middle Ages it was dominated by the Teutonic Order, and it was fought over by the Poles and Russians in the 16th century. Riga was captured by Sweden in 1621 and granted self-government, but it was ceded to Russia in 1721. The city became the capital of an independent Latvia from 1918 to 1940 but was thereafter incorporated into the U.S.S.R. Riga again became the capital of an independent Latvia in 1991. It is a principal Baltic port and a major administrative, cultural, and industrial centre. Its medieval remains include a 13th-century church and a 14th-century castle.

Learn more about Riga with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Large gulf of the Baltic Sea. Bounded by Latvia and Estonia, it covers about 7,000 sq mi (18,000 sq km). The gulf, icebound from December to April, has a maximum depth of 177 ft (54 m). The coasts are mostly low and sandy, and several important rivers, including the Western Dvina, reach the sea there. Several ports and resorts, including Riga, line its shores.

Learn more about Riga, Gulf of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Riga (Rīga, riːga, ) the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of the river Daugava. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states. The Historic Centre of Riga has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the city is particularly notable for its extensive Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) architecture, which UNESCO considers to be unparalleled anywhere in the world .

History

Riga is located on the site of an ancient settlement of the Livonians, an ancient Finnic tribe, at the junction of the Daugava and the Riga River, at one point forming a natural harbor called the Riga Lake, neither of which exist today . It is believed that the name of the river gave Riga its name.

The modern founding of Riga is regarded by historians to have begun with the arrival of German traders, mercenaries and religious crusaders in the second half of the 12th century, attracted by a sparsely populated region, potential new markets and by the missionary opportunities to convert the local population to Christianity. German merchants established an outpost for trading with the Balts near the Liv settlement at Riga in 1158. The Augustinian monk Meinhard built a monastery there ca. 1190.

Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig, Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg in 1199. He landed in Riga in 1201 with 23 ships and more than 1500 armed crusaders, making Riga his bishopric. He established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword (later a branch of the Teutonic Knights) and granted Riga city rights in 1225.

Riga served as a gateway to trade with the Baltic tribes and with Russia. In 1282 Riga became a member of the Hanseatic League. The Hansa was instrumental in giving Riga economic and political stability, thus providing the city with a strong foundation which endured the political conflagrations that were to come, down to modern times.

As the influence of the Hansa waned, Riga became the object of foreign military, political, religious and economic aspirations. Riga accepted the Reformation in 1522, ending the power of the archbishops. In 1524, a venerated statue of the Virgin Mary in the Cathedral was denounced as a witch, and given a trial by water in the Daugava River. The statue floated, so it was denounced as a witch and burnt at Kubsberg. With the demise of the Teutonic Knights in 1561, Riga for twenty years had the status of a Free Imperial City, then in 1581, Riga came under the influence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1621 Riga and the outlying fortress of Daugavgriva came under the rule of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, who intervened in the Thirty Years' War not only for political and economic gain but also in favor of German Lutheran Protestantism. During the Russo-Swedish War, 1656-1658, Riga withstood a siege by Russians. Riga remained the largest city in Sweden until 1710 during a period in which the city retained a great deal of self-government autonomy. In that year, in the course of Great Northern War, Russia under Tsar Peter the Great invaded Riga. Sweden's northern dominance ended, and Russia's emergence as the strongest Northern power was formalized through the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. Riga was annexed by Russia and became an industrialized port city of the Russian empire, where it remained until World War I. By 1900, Riga was the third largest city in Russia after Moscow and Saint Petersburg in terms of numbers of industrial workers.

During these many centuries of war and changes of power in the Baltic, the Baltic Germans in Riga remained in their dominant position despite demographic changes. Riga employed German as its official language of administration until the imposition of Russian language in 1891 as the official language in the Baltic provinces. Latvians began to supplant Germans as the largest ethnic group in the city in the mid-19th century. The rise of a Latvian bourgeoisie made Riga a center of the Latvian National Awakening with the founding of the Riga Latvian Association in 1868 and the organization of the first national song festival in 1873. The nationalist movement of the Young Latvians was followed by the socialist New Current during the city's rapid industrialization, culminating in the 1905 Revolution led by the Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party.

The 20th century brought World War I and the impact of the Russian Revolution of 1917 to Riga. The German army marched into Riga in 1917. In 1918 the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed giving the Baltic countries to Germany. Because of the Armistice with Germany of November 11, 1918, Germany had to renounce that treaty, as did Russia, leaving Latvia and the other Baltic States in a position to claim independence. Latvia, with Riga as its capital city, thus declared its independence on November 18, 1918.

Between World War I and World War II (1918–1940), Riga and Latvia shifted their focus from Russia to the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom and Germany replaced Russia as Latvia's major trade partners.

During the World War II, Latvia was occupied first by the Soviet Union in 1941 and then by Nazi Germany in 1941-1944. The Baltic Germans were forcibly repatriated to Germany. The city's Jewish community was forced into a ghetto in the Maskavas neighbourhood, and concentration camps were constructed in Kaiserwald and the city of Salaspils.

In 1945 Latvia was once again occupied by the Red Army. As a result of the war Latvia lost approximately one-third of its population. Forced industrialization and planned large-scale immigration of large numbers of non-Latvians from other Soviet republics into Riga, particularly Russians, changed the demographic composition of Riga.

The policy of economic reform, introduced in 1986 as Perestroika, led to dissolution of the Soviet Union and restoration of independent Latvia in 1991. Latvia formally joined the United Nations as an independent country on September 17, 1991. In 2004 Latvia joined both NATO and the European Union.

In 2004, the arrival of low-cost airlines resulted in cheaper flights from other European cities such as London and Berlin and consequently a substantial increase in numbers of tourists.

Geography

Cityscape

  • The Cathedral, the largest church in the Baltic states. Built in the 13th century, it was modified several times in its history. It has a magnificent organ that dates from 1844.
  • Riga Castle (Rīgas Pils), which houses the Museum of Latvian History and the Museum of Foreign Art.
  • Saint Peter's Church, Riga, with its high tower.
  • St. John's Church, a small 13th-century chapel, behind Saint Peter's Church.
  • The Powder Tower (Pulvertornis), the only tower that remains from the original city walls. The Latvian Museum of War is located inside.
  • Wooden architecture.
  • Ethnographic Open-Air Museum (Brīvdabas Muzejs), houses, farm buildings, and church representing rural life going back hundreds of years. Situated along Jugla Lake (Juglas Ezers).
  • The Occupation Museum of Latvia, which documents the seizure and occupation of Latvia by different forces from 1940 to 1991.
  • Art Nouveau architecture on Central Riga streets such as Alberta and Elizabetes Iela.
  • Riga Radio and TV Tower - the third highest tower in Europe.
  • Motor Museum (Motormuzejs) - collection of retro motorcycles and automobiles, including some of the first motorcycles and remants of the Soviet era, for example, Brezhnev's and Stalin's armored limousines with waxworks of these political figures. Located in Mežciems.
  • Riga Zoo and Mežaparks (Forest Park) with a Ferris wheel.
  • Riga Circus - the only permanently situatated circus in the Baltic States.

Neighbourhoods

The city of Riga consists of six administrative regions, four of which are named after regions of Latvia - Kurzeme district, Latgale suburb, Vidzeme suburb, Zemgale suburb. There is also a Central District and a Northern district. Residents, however, divide Riga into residential neighbourhoods called micro regions. Unlike the city centre, they are mostly residential although they are equipped with commercial sectors. These neighbourhoods include:

  • Āgenskalns - Left bank, old neighbourhood, mainly built in late 19th - early 20th century.
  • Andrejsala - An emerging art, culture and entertainment district, located within former territory of the industrial port.
  • Beberbeķi - A neighbourhood consisting mainly of private houses, it lies on the western edge of the city. The swampy forest Mukupurvs and Riga Airport noise area separate it from the rest of the city.
  • Bolderāja - Left bank, northernmost neighbourhood. The 18th-century fort built by Peter the Great is one of the oldest buildings in this part of the city.
  • Čiekurkalns - Right bank, old neighbourhood.
  • Dārzciems - Right bank, mainly consists of one or two-storey private houses.
  • Dreiliņi - A newly built neighbourhood in the eastern part of the city.
  • Dzirciems - Left bank, south of Iļģuciems.
  • Iļģuciems - Left bank, north of Āgenskalns.
  • Imanta - Left bank, newly built neighbourhood.
  • Jugla - Right bank, large neighbourhood, lies just west of lake Juglas.
  • Ķengarags - Right bank, south-east of city center. One of the most populous neighbourhoods in town.
  • Ķīpsala - island located just west of the Old Town. Home to the Press Office and Exhibition Hall.
  • Maskavas Forštate - located south of the city centre.
  • Mežaparks - Right bank, consists largely of private houses. Notable for its large forest-like park and the city zoo.
  • Mežciems - Right bank, just east of the large Biķernieku forest.
  • Pārdaugava - Not really a neighbourhood in itself, but the name is frequently used when talking about left bank, particularly Āgenskalns and Torņakalns.
  • Pleskodāle - A neighbourhood consisting mostly of private houses on the west side of the city. It borders Zolitūde and Šampēteris neighbourhoods.
  • Pļavnieki - Right bank, one of the town's most populous neighbourhoods.
  • Purvciems - Right bank.
  • Sarkandaugava - Right bank, east of the small river with the same name.
  • Šampēteris - An old neighbourhood on the best bank of the Daugava, with many houses built in the first part of 20th century still surviving.
  • Šmerlis - Right bank, more of a forest than a neighbourhood, it is home to Riga's Cinema Studio.
  • Torņakalns - Left bank, old neighbourhood known for the Māras pond.
  • Vecmīlgrāvis - Right bank, cut off from the mainland by a small river, Mīlgrāvis.
  • Vecrīga - Old Town.
  • Ziepniekkalns - Left bank, consists both of old and new buildings.
  • Zolitūde - Left bank, another newly-built neighbourhood, just south of Imanta.

Some common factors in these place names are "vec" meaning old [vecs], "kalns" meaning hill, "ciems" meaning village, "sala" meaning island and "mež" meaning forest [mežs].

Climate

The climate of Riga is maritime and temperate, but the winters can be extreme due to the northern location. The coldest months are January and February, when the average temperature is -6°C but can frequently drop as low as -25°C. Due to the proximity of the sea autumn rains and fogs are frequent. Continuous snow cover may last eighty days. The summers in Riga are very warm and humid, with an average temperature of 18°C, the peak often goes as high as 36°C.


Economy

Business and leisure travel to Riga have increased significantly in recent years due to improved infrastructure. Most tourists travel to Riga by air via Riga International Airport, the largest airport in the Baltic states, which was renovated and modernized in 2001 on the occasion of Riga's 800th anniversary. In the near future, the face of Riga will undergo notable changes. The construction of a new landmark — the Latvian National Library building — is beginning in the autumn of 2007 and is due to be built by 2010. Currently discussions are underway in Riga council about the development of the central areas on the left bank of the Daugava. The major dispute surrounds plans to build skyscrapers in Ķīpsala. The construction of 3 buildings in Ķīpsala has already started — the Da Vinci complex (25 floors) and two high-rises called Z-Towers (30 floors). Almost all important Latvian financial institutions are located in Riga, including the Bank of Latvia, which is Latvia's central bank. Foreign commercial trade through Riga has been on the increase in recent years and received new impetus on May 1, 2004 when Latvia became a member of the European Union. Riga accounts for about half of the total industrial output of Latvia, focusing on the financial sector, public utilities, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, wood processing, printing and publishing, textiles and furniture, and communications equipment manufacturing. More than 50% of Latvian companies are registered in Riga region. The port of Riga is an important cargo shipping center. It is the main all-weather port in the Baltic and is expected to grow in the next few years due to increased trade with other ex-Soviet states and China.

Infrastructure

Riga has one airport, Riga International Airport, that serves commercial airlines. Air traffic at the airport doubled between 1993 and 2004. Baltic sea ferries connect Riga to Stockholm, Kiel and Lübeck. Riga was also home to two air bases during the Cold War: Rumbula and Spilve. Riga as a city-port is a major transportation hub and is the center of the local road and railway system. In 2008, the first stage of the new Southern Bridge route across the Daugava will be completed. The Southern Bridge is currently the biggest construction project in Baltic States in 20 years, and will help to reduce traffic jams and the amount of traffic in the city centre. Another big construction project is the planned Riga Northern Transport Corridor, which is scheduled to start in 2010.

Public transportation in the city is provided by Rīgas Satiksme which operates a large fleet of trams, buses and trolleybuses on an extensive network of routes across the city. In addition, many private owners operate minibus services. Riga is connected to the rest of Latvia by trains operated by the national railway company Pasažieru Vilciens, whose headquarters are in Riga. There are also international rail links to Russia and Estonia (Valga).

Demographics

Year Population
1767 19,500
1800 29,500
1840 60,000
1867 102,600
1881 169,300
1897 282,200
1913 517,500
1920 ¹185,100
1930 377,900
1940 353,800
Year Population
1941 335,200
1945 ²228,200
1950 482,300
1955 566,900
1959 580,400
1965 665,200
1970 731,800
1975 795,600
1979 835,500
1987 900,300
Year Population
1990 909,135
1991 900,455
1992 889,741
1993 863,657
1994 843,552
1995 824,988
1996 810,172
1997 797,947
1998 786,612
1999 776,008
Year Population
2000 764,329
2001 756,627
2002 747,157
2003 739,232
2004 735,241
2005 731,762
2006 727,578
2007 722,485

With 722,485 inhabitants in 2007, Riga is the largest city in the Baltic States, though its population has decreased since 1991. Notable causes include out-migration and low fertility rates. Some have estimated that the population may fall by as much as 50% by 2050. According to the 2007 data, native Latvians make up 42.3% of the population of Riga, with the percentage of Russians at 42.1%, Belarusians at 4.4%, Ukrainians at 3.9%, Poles at 2.0%, and others at 4.3%. By comparison, 59% of Latvia's inhabitants are native Latvians, 28.5% are Russians, 3.8% are Belarusians, 2.5% are Ukrainians, 2.4% are Polish, 1.4% are Lithuanians and the remaining 2.4% are accounted for by other nationalities (2006). Upon restoration of Latvian independence in 1991, Soviet-era migrants (and any of their offspring born before 1991) were not automatically granted Latvian citizenship. Some have emigrated; this partially accounts for the recent decline in Riga's population. As a result of this repatriation of some Soviet-era migrants, the proportion of Latvians in Riga has increased from 36.5% in 1989 to 42.3% in 2007. In contrast the percentage of Russians has fallen from 47.3% to 42.1% in the same time period. Latvians overtook Russians as the largest ethnic group in 2006.

Universities

Sister cities

Riga maintains sister city relationships with the following cities:

Aalborg, Denmark Almati, Kazakhstan Amsterdam, Netherlands Astana, Kazakhstan
Beijing, China Bordeaux, France Bremen, Germany Cairns, Australia
Calais, France Dallas, USA Florence, Italy Kiev, Ukraine
Kobe, Japan Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia Norrköping, Sweden
Pori, Finland Providence, USA Rostock, Germany Saint Petersburg, Russia
Santiago, Chile Slough, UK Stockholm, Sweden Suzhou, China
Taipei, Taiwan Tallinn, Estonia Vilnius, Lithuania Warsaw, Poland

See also

References

External links

Search another word or see rigaon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature
FAVORITES
RECENT

;