This list of dinosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the superorder Dinosauria, excluding class Aves (birds, both living and those known only from fossils) and purely vernacular terms. The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered dinosaurs. Many listed dinosaurs have since been reclassified as everything from birds to crocodilians to petrified wood. The list contains 1211 names, of which approximately 820 are considered either valid dinosaur genera or nomina dubia.
Scope and terminology
There is no official, canonical list of dinosaur genera. The closest is the Dinosaur Genera List, compiled by biological nomenclature expert George Olshevsky, which was first published online in 1995 and is regularly updated. The most authoritative general source in the field is the second (2004) edition of The Dinosauria. The vast majority of citations are based on Olshevsky's list, and all subjective determinations (such as junior synonymy or non-dinosaurian status) are based on The Dinosauria, except where they conflict with primary literature. These exceptions are noted.
Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:
- Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN (see Tyrannosaurus), but junior synonyms cannot be used again, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
- Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen.
- Nomen oblitum (Latin for "forgotten name"): A name that has not been used in the scientific community for more than fifty years after its original proposal.
- Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. As preoccupied names are not valid generic names, they will also go unitalicized on this list.
- Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation (see Hadrosaurus), this term is not used on this list.
Aetonyx — possible junior synonym of Massospondylus
Aggiosaurus — actually a metriorhynchid crocodilian
Agrosaurus — probably a junior synonym of Thecodontosaurus
"Airakoraptor" — nomen nudum
"Alashansaurus" — nomen nudum
Albisaurus — a non-dinosaurian reptile
Aliwalia — junior synonym of EucnemesaurusAllosaurus
Alvarezsaurus — possibly a bird
"Amphicoelicaudia" — nomen nudum; possibly Huabeisaurus
"Amphisaurus" — preoccupied name, now known as Anchisaurus
Amtosaurus — possibly Talarurus
Anatosaurus — junior synonym of Edmontosaurus
Angaturama — probable junior synonym of Irritator
"Angloposeidon — nomen nudum
Ankistrodon — actually a proterosuchid archosauriform
Anodontosaurus — junior synonym of Euoplocephalus or Dyoplosaurus
Anthodon — actually a pareiasaur
Antrodemus — possibly a junior synonym of Allosaurus
Apatodon — possibly a junior synonym of Allosaurus
Apatosaurus — popularly known as Brontosaurus
"Araucanoraptor" — nomen nudum; Neuquenraptor
Archaeopteryx — actually a bird (by definition)
"Archaeoraptor" — now known as the bird Yanornis and the dromaeosaur Microraptor
Archaeornis — junior synonym of the bird Archaeopteryx
Archaeovolans — junior synonym of the bird Yanornis
Arctosaurus — actually some sort of non-dinosaurian reptile
Aristosaurus — junior synonym of Massospondylus
Arizonasaurus — actually a rauisuchian
"Arkanosaurus" — variant spelling of "Arkansaurus"
"Arkansaurus" — nomen nudum
Astrodonius — junior synonym of Astrodon
Astrodontaurus — junior synonym of Astrodon
Atlantosaurus — possible junior synonym of Apatosaurus or Camarasaurus
"Augustia" — preoccupied name, now known as Agustinia
"Avalonia" — preoccupied name, now known as Avalonianus
Avalonianus — actually a non-dinosaurian archosaur
Avipes — probably a non-dinosaurian dinosauromorph
Avisaurus — actually an enantiornithine bird
Azendohsaurus — possibly a non-dinosaurian reptile
- Caenagnathus — probable junior synonym of Chirostenotes
- Calamospondylus (Fox, 1866)
- "Calamospondylus" (Lydekker, 1889) — preoccupied name, now known as Calamosaurus
- "Camptonotus" — preoccupied name, now known as Camptosaurus
- "Campylodon" — preoccupied name, now known as Campylodoniscus
- "Capitalsaurus" — nomen nudum
- "Carnosaurus" — nomen nudum, probably a typographical error for "carnosaur"
- Cathetosaurus — junior synonym of Camarasaurus
- Caudocoelus — junior synonym of Teinurosaurus
- Caulodon — junior synonym of Camarasaurus
- Centemodon — actually a phytosaur
- "Changdusaurus" — nomen nudum
- "Changtusaurus" — variant spelling of "Changdusaurus"
- Chaoyangosaurus — misspelling of Chaoyangsaurus
- Chassternbergia — junior synonym of Edmontonia
- Cheneosaurus — junior synonym of Hypacrosaurus
- Chienkosaurus — actually a chimera of crocodilian and theropod (Szechuanosaurus) remains
- "Chihuahuasaurus" — nomen nudum; Sonorasaurus
- Chondrosteus — misspelling of Chondrosteosaurus
- "Cinizasaurus" — nomen nudum
- Cladeiodon — actually a non-dinosaurian archosaur (Teratosaurus)
- Claorhynchus — possibly Triceratops
- Clarencea — actually a sphenosuchian (Sphenosuchus)
- Clepsysaurus — actually a non-dinosaurian archosaur, except for C. fraserianus, which is part of the taxonomy of Palaeosaurus
- "Clevelanotyrannus" — nomen nudum; Nanotyrannus
- "Coelosaurus" — preoccupied name, now known as Ornithomimus and Archaeornithomimus.
- Coelurosauravus — actually a prolacertiform archosauromorph
- "Coelurosaurus" — nomen nudum, probably a typographical error for "coelurosaur"
- Colonosaurus — junior synonym of the bird Ichthyornis dispar
- "Coloradia" — preoccupied name, now known as Coloradisaurus
- "Colossosaurus" — nomen nudum; Pelorosaurus
- "Comanchesaurus" — nomen nudum
- Crataeomus — junior synonym of Struthiosaurus
- Creosaurus — junior synonym of Allosaurus
- Crosbysaurus — actually a non-dinosaurian archosauriform
- Cryptodraco — junior synonym (unneeded replacement name) of Cryptosaurus
- "Cryptoraptor" — nomen nudum
- Cumnoria — junior synonym of Camptosaurus
- "Cylindricodon" — preoccupied name, now known as Hylaeosaurus
- Cystosaurus — actually a crocodilian which through a typographical error was confused with Cryptosaurus
- Pachysauriscus — probable junior synonym of Plateosaurus
- Pachysaurops — probable junior synonym of Plateosaurus
- "Pachysaurus" — preoccupied name, now known as Pachysauriscus; probable junior synonym of Plateosaurus
- Pachyspondylus — probable junior synonym of Massospondylus
- Palaeoctonus — actually a phytosaur
- Palaeocursornis — possibly a bird
- "Palaeolimnornis" — nomen nudum; Palaeocursornis, probable bird
- Palaeopteryx — possibly a bird
- Palaeosauriscus — junior synonym of Paleosaurus
- "Palaeosaurus" (Riley & Stutchbury, 1836) — preoccupied name, now known as Paleosaurus
- "Palaeosaurus" (Fitzinger, 1840) — preoccupied name, now known as Sphenosaurus, a non-dinosaurian procolophonid
- Paleosaurus — actually a non-dinosaurian archosaur
- "Paraiguanodon" — nomen nudum; Bactrosaurus
- Pareiasaurus — actually a pareiasaur
- "Parhabdodon" — nomen nudum; misspelling of Pararhabdodon
- Parrosaurus — possible junior synonym of Hypsibema
- Parvicursor — possibly a bird
- Patagonykus — possibly a bird
- \"Patricosaurus\" — actually a chimera of various non-dinosaurian reptiles
- Pectinodon — junior synonym of Troodon
- Pekinosaurus — actually a pseudosuchian; possibly a junior synonym of Revueltosaurus
- \"Peltosaurus\" — preoccupied name, now known as Sauropelta
- Picrodon — junior synonym of Avalonianus
- Pleurocoelus — possibly Astrodon
- Pleuropeltus — junior synonym of Struthiosaurus
- Pneumatoarthrus — actually a turtle
- Polacanthoides — junior synonym of Hylaeosaurus
- Polyodontosaurus — junior synonym of Troodon
- Poposaurus — actually a non-dinosaurian archosaur
- Postosuchus — actually a rauisuchian
- Proceratops — junior synonym (unneeded replacement name) of Ceratops
- Procerosaurus (von Huene, 1902) — actually a prolacertiform archosauromorph
- \"Procerosaurus\" (Fritsch, 1905) — preoccupied name, now known as Ponerosteus
- Procheneosaurus — junior synonym of Lambeosaurus
- \"Proiguanodon\" — nomen nudum; Iguanodon
- Protecovasaurus — actually a non-dinosaurian archosauriform
- Protiguanodon — junior synonym of Psittacosaurus
- Protoavis — supposedly a bird
- \"Protognathus\" — preoccupied name, now known as Protognathosaurus
- Protorosaurus (von Meyer, 1830) — actually a non-dinosaurian reptile
- \"Protorosaurus\" (Lambe, 1914) — preoccupied name, now known as Chasmosaurus
- \"Protrachodon\" — nomen nudum; Orthomerus
- \"Proyandusaurus\" — nomen nudum; Hexinlusaurus.
- Pseudolagosuchus — actually a non-dinosaurian dinosauromorph
Uncited genera names can be attributed to Olshevsky, 2007. Dalianraptor
is listed by Olshevsky, but omitted from this list, since it has not been described as a dinosaur in a published source.
- Lambert, D. 1993. "A to Z of Dinosaurs" In: The Ultimate Dinosaur Book. Dorling Kindersley, 192 pp. ISBN 0-7513-0047-0
- Olshevsky, G. 2007. Dinosaur Genera List Retrieved September 20, 2007.
- Tweet, J. N.d. Thescelosaurus! Retrieved March 16, 2006.
- Walters, M. & J. Paker 1995. Dictionary of Prehistoric Life. Claremont Books. ISBN 1-85471-648-4.
- Weishampel, D.B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (Eds.) 2004. The Dinosauria, Second Edition. University of California Press, 861 pp. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
- Worth, G. (Ed.) N.d. The Dinosaur Encyclopedia Retrieved March 16, 2006.