|Valve involved||Stenotic disease||Insufficiency disease|
|Aortic valve||Aortic valve stenosis||Aortic insufficiency|
|Mitral valve||Mitral valve stenosis||Mitral insufficiency|
|Tricuspid valve||Tricuspid valve stenosis||Tricuspid insufficiency|
|Pulmonary valve||Pulmonary valve stenosis||Pulmonary insufficiency|
Heart valve dysplasia is an error in the development of any of the heart valves, and a common cause of congenital heart defects in humans as well as animals; tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect with four abnormalities, one of which is stenosis of the pulmonary valve. Ebstein's anomaly is an abnormality of the tricuspid valve.
Rheumatic fever was in the past a common cause of valvular heart disease (referred to as "rheumatic heart disease"). Inflammation of the heart valves due to any cause is called endocarditis; this is usually due to bacterial infection but may also be due to cancer (marantic endocarditis), certain autoimmune conditions (Libman-Sacks endocarditis) and hypereosinophilic syndrome (Loeffler endocarditis). Certain medications have been associated with valvular heart disease, most prominently ergotamine derivatives pergolide and cabergoline.