review

judicial review

Examination by a country's courts of the actions of the legislative, executive, and administrative branches of government to ensure that those actions conform to the provisions of the constitution. Actions that do not conform are unconstitutional and therefore null and void. The practice is usually considered to have begun with the ruling by the Supreme Court of the United States in Marbury v. Madison (1803). Several constitutions drafted in Europe and Asia after World War II incorporated judicial review. Especially subject to scrutiny in the U.S. have been actions bearing on civil rights (or civil liberty), due process of law, equal protection under the law, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and rights of privacy. Seealso checks and balances.

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See also critic.
A review is an evaluation of a publication, such as a movie, video game, musical composition, book, or a piece of hardware like a car, appliance, or computer. In addition to a critical statement, the review's author may assign the work a rating to indicate its relative merit. More loosely, an author may review current events or items in the news.

A compilation of reviews may itself be called a review. The New York Review of Books, for instance, is a collection of essays on literature, culture, and current affairs. National Review, founded by William F. Buckley, Jr., is an influential conservative magazine, and Monthly Review is a long-running socialist periodical.

In terms of scientific literature, reviews are a category of scientific paper, which provides a synthesis of research on a topic at that moment in time. A compilation of these reviews forms the core content of a 'tertiary' scientific journal, with examples including Annual Reviews, the Nature Reviews series of journals and Trends.

Peer review is the process by which scientists assess the work of their colleagues that has been submitted for publication in the scientific literature. A software review is also a form of peer review, by the co-workers.

Consumer review refers to a review written by the owner of a product or the user of a service who has sufficient experience to comment on reliability and whether or not the product or service delivers on its promises.

Expert review usually refers to a review written by someone who has tested several peer products or services to identify which offers the best value for money or the best set of features.

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