Revere

Revere

[ri-veer]
Revere, Paul, 1735-1818, American silversmith and political leader in the American Revolution, b. Boston. In his father's smithy he learned to work gold and silver, and he became a leading silversmith of New England. He also turned to various other skills—designing, engraving, printing, bell founding, and dentistry. In the French and Indian War he was a soldier, and in the period of growing colonial discontent with British measures after the Stamp Act (1765), he was a fervent anti-British propagandist. He early joined the Sons of Liberty, took part in the Boston Tea Party, and was a courier (1774) for the Massachusetts committee of correspondence. Revere became a figure of popular history and legend, however, because of his ride on the night of Apr. 18, 1775, to warn the people of the Massachusetts countryside that British soldiers were being sent out in the expedition that, as it turned out, started the American Revolution (see Lexington and Concord, battles of). William Dawes and Samuel Prescott also rode forth with the news. Revere did not reach his destination at Concord but was captured by the British; nevertheless, it is Revere who is remembered as the midnight rider, chiefly because of the poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He designed the first seal for the united colonies, designed and printed the first Continental bond issue, and established (1776) a powder mill at Canton, Mass. His military career was not distinguished. On the ill-fated expedition against Penobscot he was arrested for disobeying orders (though a court-martial later acquitted him of the charges), and in 1780 he returned to silversmithing. His shrewdness in other enterprises, particularly the establishment of a copper-rolling and brass-casting foundry at Canton, helped to make his later years very prosperous.

See biographies by E. G. Taylor (1930) and E. Forbes (1942, repr. 1962); D. H. Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (1994).

Revere, city (1990 pop. 42,786), Suffolk co., E Mass., a residential suburb of Boston, on Massachusetts Bay; settled c.1630, set off from Chelsea and named for Paul Revere 1871, inc. as a city 1914. It has a growing retired community and much of Revere Beach, a popular resort area, has been built up with apartment and housing complexes.

(born , Jan. 1, 1735, Boston, Mass.—died May 10, 1818, Boston) American patriot and silversmith. He entered his father's trade as a silversmith and engraver. An ardent supporter of the colonists' cause, he took part in the Boston Tea Party. As the principal rider for Boston's Committee of Safety, he arranged to signal the British approach by having lanterns placed in Boston's Old North Church steeple: “One if by land and two if by sea.” On April 18, 1775, he set off to ride to Lexington to alert colonists that British troops were on the march and to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock to flee. Though he was stopped by a British patrol, he was able to alert the patriot leaders; because of his warning, the minutemen were prepared for the Battle of Lexington and the start of the American Revolution. His ride was celebrated in a famous poem by Henry W. Longfellow (1863). During the war, Revere constructed a powder mill to supply colonial arms. After the war he discovered a process for rolling sheet copper and opened a rolling mill that produced sheathing for ships such as the USS Constitution. He continued to design handsome silver bowls, flatware, and utensils that are museum pieces today.

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(born , Jan. 1, 1735, Boston, Mass.—died May 10, 1818, Boston) American patriot and silversmith. He entered his father's trade as a silversmith and engraver. An ardent supporter of the colonists' cause, he took part in the Boston Tea Party. As the principal rider for Boston's Committee of Safety, he arranged to signal the British approach by having lanterns placed in Boston's Old North Church steeple: “One if by land and two if by sea.” On April 18, 1775, he set off to ride to Lexington to alert colonists that British troops were on the march and to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock to flee. Though he was stopped by a British patrol, he was able to alert the patriot leaders; because of his warning, the minutemen were prepared for the Battle of Lexington and the start of the American Revolution. His ride was celebrated in a famous poem by Henry W. Longfellow (1863). During the war, Revere constructed a powder mill to supply colonial arms. After the war he discovered a process for rolling sheet copper and opened a rolling mill that produced sheathing for ships such as the USS Constitution. He continued to design handsome silver bowls, flatware, and utensils that are museum pieces today.

Learn more about Revere, Paul with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Revere is a city in Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States. It borders Winthrop, East Boston and Chelsea to the south, Everett and Malden to the west, Saugus and Lynn to the north, Melrose to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. It comprises 10.0 square miles, although 4.1 of those are open water and wetlands and not suitable for development. Of the 5.9 miles² of developed land, 70% is used for housing. Revere is located approximately 5 miles from downtown Boston. The population was 47,283 at the 2000 census.

History

Revere’s first inhabitants were Native Americans who belonged to the Pawtucket Tribe and were known as the Rumney Marsh Indians. The leader, or sachem, of the Pawtuckets was Nanepashemet of Lynn. In 1616, an epidemic, probably smallpox, swept the region, killing thousands in its wake. Nanepashemet retired to the Mystic River, in what is now Medford, but was found murdered in 1619 at his fort on the brow of Rock Hill overlooking the river.

Three sons succeeded him in his reign. One of them, Wonohaquaham, also called Sagamore John, had jurisdiction over the Indians at Winnisemmit (later Chelsea) and Rumney Marsh.

Often, the Indians, with their intimate knowledge of the vast yet unexplored wilderness, would help the settlers in their struggle to survive. During King Phillip's War, the local friendly Indians were placed on what is now Deer Island where many of them perished. Later, some of the Indians on the island were enlisted to help the colonists defeat the other warring tribes.

Rumney Marsh was originally divided and allotted to twenty-one of Boston's most prominent citizens. By 1639, the original 21 allotments had been consolidated into seven great farms. Farming was, and continued to be, the principal industry of Winnisemmet, and Rumney Marsh in particular.

On September 25, 1634, Rumney Marsh was annexed to Boston, which had received its name only four years earlier. Winnisemmet and Pullen Point (which was later to be known as Winthrop) were also annexed to Boston. The first County Road in North America stretched across Rumney Marsh from the Winnisemmet Ferry to Olde Salem in 1641.

In 1739, Rumney Marsh, Winnisemmet and Pullen Point were set off from Boston and established as the Town of Chelsea. The largest of the three settlements, Rumney Marsh (North Chelsea) was selected as the Town Centre.

The area played a role in the American Revolution in 1775 as the site of the first naval battle, at Rumney Marsh.

In 1852, Pullen Point was set off from North Chelsea and established as the Town of Winthrop. That same year, Chelsea became a city. In 1871, North Chelsea adopted the name of Paul Revere. The population was 1,197. The name of the Salem Turnpike, which had been completed in 1803, was changed to Broadway.

Geography

Revere is located at (42.416247, -71.005250).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.0 square miles (26.0 km²), of which, 5.9 square miles (15.3 km²) of it is land and 4.1 square miles (10.6 km²) of it (40.98%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 47,283 people, 19,463 households, and 11,872 families residing in the city. The population density was 7,994.2 people per square mile (3,089.0/km²). There were 20,181 housing units at an average density of 3,412.0/sq mi (1,318.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 84.35% White (which includes a large Italian community), 2.88% African American, 0.26% Native American, 4.54% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 4.11% from other races, and 3.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.44% of the population. There were 19,463 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.0% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.09.

In the city the population was spread out with 21.0% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, and 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,067, and the median income for a family was $45,865. Males had a median income of $36,881 versus $31,300 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,698. About 11.9% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.4% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation

The completion in 1838 of the Eastern Railroad (later the Boston & Maine), and in 1875 of the Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn Railroad (narrow gauge), signaled the beginning of rapid population growth for the town and the development of the beach as a summer resort. They increased accessibility of Revere Beach, which became famous as a resort. By 1885, ten years later, the town had increased to 3,637 people, more than tripling in size over 15 years. By 1890 the population grew to 5,668.

The MBTA Blue Line terminates in Revere, with stops at Wonderland, Revere Beach, and Beachmont.

U.S. 1 and state routes 1A, 16, 60, 107, and 145 run through Revere.

Points of interest

Revere Beach

Revere Beach is the oldest public beach in the United States. It has a fairly active beach front district.

From its inception, Revere Beach was "the people's beach," used mostly by the working class and the many immigrants who settled in the area.

When people reminisce about Revere Beach it is not the sand and surf they remember most, but the amusements. The Whip, the Ferris Wheel, Bluebeard's Palace, the Fun House, Hurley's Dodgems, the Pit, Himalaya, Hippodrome, Sandy's, the Mickey Mouse, the Virginia Reel and many more provided hours of enjoyment for residents and visitors alike. The biggest attraction was the Cyclone, among the largest roller coasters in the United States. Built in 1925, its cars traveled at speeds of up to 50 miles per hour and its climb (and drop) reached 100 feet.

In addition to the sand, surf and amusements, there were two roller skating rinks, two bowling alleys, and numerous food stands. There were also the ballrooms, including the most famous, the Oceanview and the Beachview, each the site of many dance marathons which were popular in the 1930s.

The Beach began to deteriorate in the 1950s. By the early 1970s it had become a strip of honky tonk bars and abandoned buildings. The Great Blizzard of '78 proved to be the final death knell for the "old" Revere Beach, as many of the remaining businesses, amusements, pavilions, sidewalks, and much of the seawall were destroyed.

The Beach was the focus of a major revitalization effort by the Metropolitan District Commission and the City in the 1980s and was officially reopened in May 1992. It now boasts high rise housing units, a resanded beach, restored pavilions, and a renovated boulevard. Revere commemorated the centennial of the first opening of Revere Beach on the weekend of July 19, 1996.

Wonderland Greyhound Park

Parimutuel wagering was legalized by the Massachusetts Legislature in 1934. Wonderland Greyhound Park opened the following year and has offered greyhound racing continuously for the past 70 years. Constructed on the site of the old Wonderland Amusement Park in Revere, the site had been converted from an amusement park to a bicycle track at the turn of the century. Wonderland Park is one of the state's few remaining greyhound racing tracks.

Notable residents

Trivia

  • Chelsea Creek was the site of the Revolutionary War's first naval battle in 1775.
  • Bell Isle Marsh Reservation is the largest surviving salt marsh in Boston Harbor. It showcases plants and wildlife now rare to the Metropolitan area.
  • Next Stop Wonderland was filmed here.
  • Revere was mentioned in the novel Cell by Stephen King.
  • Revere was featured in the X-Files episode "Paper Hearts"

References

External links

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