energy, conservation of

Principle of physics according to which the energy of interacting bodies or particles in a closed system remains constant, though it may take different forms (e.g., kinetic energy, potential energy, thermal energy, energy in an electric current, or energy stored in an electric field, in a magnetic field, or in chemical bonds [see bonding]). With the advent of relativity physics in 1905, mass was recognized as equivalent to energy. When accounting for a system of high-speed particles whose mass increases as a consequence of their speed, the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of mass become one conservation law. Seealso Hermann von Helmholtz.

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or law of conservation

In physics, the principle that certain quantities within an isolated system do not change over time. When a substance in an isolated system changes phase, the total amount of mass does not change. When energy is changed from one form to another in an isolated system, there is no change in the total amount of energy. When a transfer of momentum occurs in an isolated system, the total amount of momentum is conserved. The same is true for electric charge in a system: charge lost by one particle is gained by another. Conservation laws make it possible to predict the macroscopic behaviour of a system without having to consider the microscopic details of a physical process or chemical reaction.

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Planned management of a natural resource or of a particular ecosystem to prevent exploitation, pollution, destruction, or neglect and to ensure the future usability of the resource. Living resources are renewable, minerals and fossil fuels are nonrenewable. In the West, conservation efforts date to 17th-century efforts to protect European forests in the face of increasing demands for fuel and building materials. National parks, first established in the 19th century, were dedicated to the preservation of uncultivated land not only to provide a safe haven to wildlife but to protect watershed areas and help ensure a clean water supply. National legislation and international treaties and regulations aim to strike a balance between the need for development and the need to conserve the environment for the future.

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Maintenance and preservation of works of art, their protection from future damage, deterioration, or neglect, and the repair or renovation of works that have deteriorated or been damaged. Research in art history has relied heavily on 20th- and 21st-century technical and scientific advances in art restoration. Modern conservation practice adheres to the principle of reversibility, which dictates that treatments should not cause permanent alteration to the object.

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(1933–42) U.S. unemployment program. One of the earliest New Deal programs, it was established to relieve unemployment during the Great Depression by providing national conservation work primarily for young unmarried men. Recruits lived in semimilitary work camps and received $30 a month as well as food and medical care. Projects included planting trees, building flood barriers, fighting forest fires, and maintaining forest roads and trails. It employed a total of 3 million men during its existence.

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Apportionment of productive assets among different uses. The issue of resource allocation arises as societies seek to balance limited resources (capital, labour, land) against the various and often unlimited wants of their members. Mechanisms of resource allocation include the price system in free-market economies and government planning, either in state-run economies or in the public sectors of mixed economies. The aim is always to allocate resources in such a way as to obtain the maximum possible output from a given combination of resources.

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This entry provides a select bibliography and other resources for the main article: The Holocaust.


Historical studies

  • Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. Yale University Press; New Ed edition, 2002. ISBN 0-300-09300-4
  • Bauer, Yehuda. Jews for Sale? Nazi–Jewish Negotiations 1933–1945. Yale University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-300-06852-2
  • Berenbaum, Michael, A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis (1990)
  • Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair : Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule (2004)
  • Black, Edwin. The Transfer Agreement, (c1984)
  • Braham, Randolph L., The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary 2 vols. Boulder:Social Science Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press) (rev. and enlarged, (1994) ISBN 0-8803-3247-6
  • Browning, Christopher R. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 (2004)
  • Burleigh, Michael & Wippermann, Wolfgang The Racial State : Germany 1933-1945, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, (1991) ISBN 0-521-39114-8.
  • Davidowicz, Lucy, The War Against the Jews : 1933-1945 (1975).
  • Davies, Norman and Lukas, Richard C. Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation 1939-1944, (2001, c1996)
  • Dwork, Deborah. Robert Jan Van Pelt, Auschwitz: 1270 to the Present (1996)
  • Dwork, Deborah and Jan Van Pelt, Robert. Holocaust: A History (2002)
  • Friedländer, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews : Volume 1: The Years of Persecution 1933-1939 (1998); Volume 2: Nazi Germany and the Jews 1939-1945: The Years of Extermination. HarperCollins, 2007.
  • Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (1997, c1995)
  • Gilbert, Martin. Auschwitz and the Allies (1983, c198l)
  • Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe during the Second World War (New York, 1985) ISBN 0-8050-0348-7
  • Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust ISBN 0-6881-2364-3
  • Gutman, Yisrael, and Berenbaum, Michael, eds. Anatomy of the Auschwitz death camp (1994) ISBN 0-2533-2684-2
  • Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews, vol. 1-3 (2003, c1961)
  • Hilberg, Raul. Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe 1933-1945, (1992)
  • The Holocaust Chronicle, (2001)
  • Klempner, Mark. The Heart Has Reasons: Holocaust Rescuers and Their Stories of Courage (The Pilgrim Press, 2006) ISBN 0-8298-16992
  • Lusane, Clarence . Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experience of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans and African Americans in the Nazi Era (2002)
  • Peukert, Detlev “The Genesis of the `Final Solution’ from the Spirit of Science” pages 234-252 from Reevaluating the Third Reich edited by Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan, New York: Holmes & Meier, 1994 ISBN 0-8419-1178-9.
  • Ioanid, Radu. The Holocaust in Romania: The Destruction of Jews and Gypsies Under the Antonescu Regime, 1940-1944 (2001)
  • Rossel, Seymour. The Holocaust: The World and the Jews, 1933-1945 (1992).
  • Schleunes, Karl A. The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policy Toward German Jews, 1933-1939 (1990, c1970)
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Historical Atlas of the Holocaust, Macmillan Publishing (1996)

Selected survivor accounts

  • Pelzman, Liliane, And No More Sorrow, The World War II Memoirs of Sonja Kiek Rosenstein Cohen (2008)
  • Amery, Jean. At the Mind's Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor on Auschwitz and its Realities (1998, c1980)
  • Beck, Gad. An Underground Life: Memoirs of a Gay Jew in Nazi Berlin (1999)
  • Dittman, Anita. Trapped in Hitler's Hell. 2005. ISBN 0972151281
  • Frankl, Viktor E. Man's Search For Meaning (1997, c1984)
  • Gutman, Israel, Resistance : The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1998)
  • Heger, Heinz. Men With the Pink Triangle: The True, Life-And-Death Story of Homosexuals in the Nazi Death Camps (1994, c1980)
  • Klemperer, Victor. I Shall Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years, 2 vols., also published as I Will Bear Witness in the U.S. (2001, c1998)
  • Krinitz, Esther Nisenthal. Memories of Survival, (2005)
  • Lengyel, Olga. Five chimneys: the story of Auschwitz. (1985, c1947)
  • Levi, Primo. If This Is A Man and The Truce, published separately in the U.S. as Survival At Auschwitz and The Reawakening (1995)
  • Levi, Primo. The Drowned and The Saved (1985)
  • Filip Müller. Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chambers at Auschwitz (1999, c1979)
  • Nomberg-Przuytyk, Sara. Auschwitz: True Tales from a Grotesque Land (1985)
  • Nyiszli, Miklos. Auschwitz : A Doctor's Eyewitness Account (2001)
  • Seel, Pierre. I, Pierre Seel, Deported Homosexual: A Memoir of Nazi Terror (1995)
  • Lambert, Raymond-Raoul, Diary of a Witness, 1940-1943 (2007), Ivan R. Dee, Publisher ISBN 1-56663-740-6
  • Smith, Lyn, Forgotten Voices of the Holocaust (2005), Ebury Press ISBN 9780091898267
  • Vrba, Rudolf. First published as I Cannot Forgive by Sidgwick and Jackson, Grove Press, 1963, ISBN 0-394-62133-6; also published as Escape from Auschwitz: I Cannot Forgive; latest edition I Escaped from Auschwitz, Barricade Books, 2002, ISBN 1-56980-232-7.
  • Wiesenthal, Simon and James, Harry, et al. The Sunflower: On the Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness (1998, c1997)
  • Zuckerman, Yitzhak. A Surplus of Memory: Chronicle of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1993)

Selected semi-autobiographical by survivors

Other documentation

  • Arad, Yitzhak, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps (1999, c1987)
  • Browning Christopher R., Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland(1998, c1992)
  • Carr, Firpo Wycoff Germany's Black Holocaust, 1890-1945 (2003)
  • Czech, Dauntua, Auschwitz Chronicle: 1939-1945 (1999)
  • Lucjan Dobroszycki (ed.), The Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto, 1941-1944 (1987, c1984)
  • Gilbert, Martin, Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War (1987, c1985)
  • Gutman, Israel, Berenbaum, Michael, et al. (ed.), Yehuda Bauer, Raul Hilberg, et al. (ed. bd.) Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp (1998, c1994)
  • David J. Hogan, David Aretha, eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures. Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, 2000
  • Kaplan, Vivian Jeanette - Ten Green Bottles: Nazi Occupied Vienna to Shanghai (2004)
  • Dean, Martin. Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-44 (1999)
  • Oppenheimer, Deborah and Harris, Mark Jonathan (ed.), Into the Arms of Strangers : Stories of the Kindertransport (2001, c1998)
  • Fings, Karola and Kenrick, Donald (ed.) The Gypsies During the Second World War, 2 vols. (1999)
  • van Pelt, Robert Jan. The Case for Auschwitz: Evidence from the Irving Trial (2002)
  • Edgar Ansel Mowrer. Germany Puts the Clock Back (1933)

Hypotheses and historiography

  • Agamben, Giorgio . Remnants of Auschwitz: The Witness and the Archive (1999)
  • Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (1994, c1963)
  • Cole, Tim. Selling the Holocaust : From Auschwitz to Schindler, How History is Bought, Packaged and Sold (1999)
  • Goldhagen, Daniel J. , Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust, (1997)
  • Dippel, John V. H. Bound Upon a Wheel of Fire: Why so many German Jews made the tragic decision to remain in Nazi Germany (1996)
  • Finkelstein, Norman G.. Ruth Bettina Birn, A nation on trial: the Goldhagen thesis and historical truth (1998)
  • Leff, Laurel Buried By The Times: The Holocaust And America's Most Important Newspaper, Cambridge University Press (2005), hardcover, 426 pages, ISBN 0-521-81287-9
  • Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory (1994)
  • Marrus, Michael R. The Holocaust in History (1989, c1987)
  • Niewyk, Donald L. Holocaust: Problems & Perspective of Interpretation (1997, c1992)
  • Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life (1999)
  • Rosenbaum, Alan S. (ed.) Is the Holocaust Unique?: Perspectives on Comparative Genocide (2001, c1996)
  • Troncoso, Sergio. The Nature of Truth (2003)
  • Weiss, John. Ideology of Death: Why the Holocaust Happened in Germany (1997)
  • Wolffsohn, Michael Eternal Guilt? : Forty years of German-Jewish-Israeli Relations, New York : Columbia University Press, (1993) ISBN 0231082746.

Selected filmography

External links

General Sites

Official memorials

Particular groups in the Holocaust

Holocaust education

Victim information and databases

Documentation and evidence

Other topics

In need of categorization

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