is the branch of engineering
that deals with the application of physical science
), with mathematics
, to the process of converting raw materials
into more useful or valuable forms. In addition to producing useful materials, chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques, an important form of research and development
. A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer
Chemical engineering largely involves the design and maintenance of chemical processes for large-scale manufacture. Chemical engineers in this branch are usually employed under the title of process engineer.
Chemical Engineering Timeline
In 1824, French physicist Sadi Carnot
, in his “On the Motive Power of Fire”, was the first to study the thermodynamics
of combustion reactions
in steam engines
. In the 1850s, German physicist Rudolf Clausius
began to apply the principles developed by Carnot to chemicals systems at the atomic to molecular scale. During the years 1873 to 1876 at Yale University
, American mathematical physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs
, the first to be awarded a Ph.D. in engineering in the U.S., in a series of three papers, developed a mathematical-based, graphical methodology, for the study of chemical systems
using the thermodynamics of Clausius. In 1882, German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz
, published a founding thermodynamics paper, similar to Gibbs, but with more of an electro-chemical basis, in which he showed that measure of chemical affinity
, i.e. the “force” of chemical reactions
, is determined by the measure of the free energy
of the reaction process. Following these early developments, the new science of chemical engineering began to develop. The following timeline shows some of the key steps in the development of the science of chemical engineering:
Chemical engineering is applied in the manufacture of a wide variety of products. The chemical industry
proper manufactures inorganic and organic industrial chemicals, ceramics, fuels and petrochemicals
, agrochemicals (fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides), plastics
, oleochemicals, explosives, detergents and detergent products (soap, shampoo, cleaning fluids), fragrances and flavors, additives, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals. Closely allied or overlapping disciplines include wood processing
, food processing, environmental technology, and the engineering of petroleum, glass, paints and other coatings, inks, sealants and adhesives.
To show the difference between laboratory chemistry and industrial chemical engineering, consider a simple one-step reaction between two reagents R1 and R2 to give a product P and waste W. The reaction may be represented R1 + R2 = P + W. A solvent
S and possibly a catalyst
C may be required, and it may need to be heated to speed the reaction.
A specific example would be the synthesis of aspirin by the reaction of salicylic acid (R1) with acetic anhydride (R2) in solvent water (S) and in the presence of catalyst phosphoric acid (C). Aspirin is the product P, and acetic acid (W) is also formed.
In the laboratory 5 grams of R1 (a solid) are added to 120 ml of water in a flask. 5 ml of R2 (a liquid) are added plus 0.5 ml of phosphoric acid solution, and the flask is heated in a water bath. The contents are agitated by swirling the flask or with a laboratory stirrer and heated under reflux for about an hour.
The material is allowed to cool down and crystals of aspirin are formed, which may be filtered off, and perhaps recrystallized. A good yield would be 5 to 6 grams. The remaining solution is poured down the sink.
Now consider an industrial process in which we replace grams with tons.
Firstly suitable storage (say for two weeks of production) must be provided for the raw materials. In this case R1 is a solid and would be put in a storage silo; R2 is a corrosive liquid, combustible and sensitive to water, so would need a closed tank of resistant material. A means of transport to the reactor must be provided, such as a screw conveyor for the solid R1 and a pump and pipes for liquid R2. Chemical engineers would calculate the sizes and power requirements and specify suitable materials.
Similar arrangements must be made for the solvent S and the catalyst C. In this case, water is the solvent, but ordinary tap water would not be good enough, so there will be a separate process to clean the water.
The reactor is now to contain 120 tons of water and the other ingredients so cannot be swirled. An agitator must be designed and its power consumption calculated to give the necessary mixing. Heating and cooling are considered free in the laboratory, but not in industry. The chemical engineers must first calculate the amount of heat to be added and removed, and then design suitable methods to do this, perhaps by passing steam through an outer jacket of the vessel to heat. They will probably decide to pump the reacted mixture to another vessel with a cooler, then to a filter. The solid will then go to further equipment to dissolve, crystallize and filter again, giving perhaps 5.5 tons of aspirin, which will be dried and placed in suitable storage, which must also be designed. (The drying process uses significant amounts of energy.)
However, there is about 125 tons of waste which cannot be just poured down the drain. It will contain some unreacted R1 and about 3 tons of W, which must be recovered and recycled. (In this case, W can be converted to R2 in another reactor.) The catalyst may be recovered, or made harmless by a chemical reaction before disposal. Thus there will be another set of equipment to save the cost of wasting chemicals and to protect the environment. Solvents other than water are generally recycled by distillation, but water is also re-used and recycled as far as economically feasible.
This process may run as a batch process, where reactors are filled and emptied discharging their contents through the plant upon completion. Alternatively the process may be run as a continuous process, where the reaction precursors are fed through the plant at a fixed rate. The choice of continuous or batch is dependent upon a combination of reaction kinetics, the desired amount of product and the economics of the plant's operation and would be decided during the design phase of the plant.
Chemical engineers design processes to ensure the most economical operation. This means that the entire production chain must be planned and controlled for costs. A chemical engineer can both simplify and complicate "showcase" reactions for an economic advantage. Using a higher pressure or temperature makes several reactions easier; ammonia, for example, is simply produced from its component elements in a high-pressure reactor. On the other hand, reactions with a low yield can be recycled continuously, which would be complex, arduous work if done by hand in the laboratory. It is not unusual to build 6-step, or even 12-step evaporators to reuse the vaporization energy for an economic advantage. In contrast, laboratory chemists evaporate samples in a single step.
The individual processes used by chemical engineers (eg. distillation or filtration) are called unit operations and consist of chemical reactions, mass-, heat- and momentum- transfer operations. Unit operations are grouped together in various configurations for the purpose of chemical synthesis and/or chemical separation. Some processes are a combination of intertwined transport and separation unit operations, (e.g. reactive distillation).
Three primary physical laws underlying chemical engineering design are conservation of mass, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy. The movement of mass and energy around a chemical process are evaluated using mass balances and energy balances, laws that apply to discrete parts of equipment, unit operations, or an entire plant. In doing so, chemical engineers must also use principles of thermodynamics, reaction kinetics and transport phenomena. The task of performing these balances is now aided by process simulators, which are complex software models (see List of Chemical Process Simulators) that can solve mass and energy balances and usually have built-in modules to simulate a variety of common unit operations.
Modern chemical engineering
The modern discipline of chemical engineering encompasses much more than just process engineering. Chemical engineers are now engaged in the development and production of a diverse range of products, as well as in commodity and specialty chemicals
. These products include high performance materials needed for aerospace
and space and military
applications. Examples include ultra-strong fibers, fabrics
, Organic Dye Sensitized Photovoltaic Cells
and composites for vehicles, bio-compatible materials
for implants and prosthetics
for medical applications, pharmaceuticals
, and films with special dielectric
, optical or spectroscopic
properties for opto-electronic devices. Additionally, chemical engineering is often intertwined with biology
and biomedical engineering
. Many chemical engineers work on biological projects such as understanding biopolymers (proteins
) and mapping the human genome
Related fields and topics
Today, the field of chemical engineering is a diverse one, covering areas from biotechnology
to mineral processing
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