Military organization of citizens with limited military training who are available for emergency service, usually for local defense. In many countries the militia is of ancient origin. The Anglo-Saxons required every able-bodied free male to serve. In colonial America it was the only defense against hostile Indians when regular British forces were not available. In the American Revolution the militia, called the Minutemen, provided the bulk of the American forces. Militias played a similar role in the War of 1812 and the American Civil War. State-controlled volunteer militias in the U.S. became the National Guard. British militia units, begun in the 16th century for home defense and answerable to the county sheriff or lord lieutenant, were absorbed into the regular army in the 20th century. Today various paramilitary organizations, from U.S. white supremacists to revolutionaries in the developing world, use the term militia to accentuate their populist origins.
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Fund of gold bullion or coin held by a government or bank. In the past, banks accumulated gold reserves to fulfill their promise to pay their depositors in gold. Commercial banks received deposits subject to repayment in gold on demand and issued notes redeemable in gold on demand. Most gold reserves eventually shifted to central banks, which took over the function of issuing paper money. Gold reserves were moved again in the 1930s, when many governments required their central banks to turn over to the national treasuries all or most of their gold holdings. In the U.S., the Gold Reserve Act of 1934 required Federal Reserve banks to turn over all gold bullion or coin to the U.S. Treasury, which placed most of the reserves at Fort Knox.
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In the U.S., any of numerous forest areas under federal supervision for the purposes of conserving water, timber, wildlife, fish, and other renewable resources and providing public recreation areas. Administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service, in the early 21st century the forests numbered 155 and occupied 352,000 sq mi (911,700 sq km) in 40 states and Puerto Rico. They were founded in 1891 as a system of forest reserves and were renamed national forests in 1907. Seealso Gifford Pinchot.
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Tract of land, northeastern Ohio, U.S. Located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, it formed part of the western lands of Connecticut not surrendered to Congress in 1786. It covered about 3,500,000 ac (1,417,500 ha) and was sold in part to immigrants from Connecticut (1786–1800). Ceded in 1800 to Ohio, it was later divided into several counties.
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U.S. central bank system consisting of 12 Federal Reserve districts with a Reserve bank in the principal commercial city of each district. The system is supervised by a board of governors in Washington, D.C., as well as by various advisory councils and committees. As a result of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, all national banks are required to join the system; state banks may join if they meet membership qualifications. The Federal Reserve is responsible for monetary policy. The original act set fixed reserve requirements for the U.S. fractional reserve banking system. It allowed each district bank to determine its discount rate, the rate it charged on loans to member banks. The modern Federal Reserve resulted from the Federal Reserve Act of 1935, which allowed the board to determine reserve requirements within defined limits. It became responsible for approving the discount rates of the district banks. Most importantly, the act created the Federal Reserve Open Market Committee, which is responsible for conducting operations in financial markets that increase or decrease the amount of reserves in the system. If the Federal Reserve wants to ease monetary policy, it will use open market operations and increase the amount of reserves through the purchase of financial assets. Conversely, it can tighten monetary policy through the sale of financial assets.
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There were 50 households out of which 24.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 58.0% were non-families. 48.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 3.10.
In the city the population was spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 122.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 122.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $13,333, and the median income for a family was $28,125. Males had a median income of $22,188 versus $18,958 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,343. There were 6.7% of families and 24.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 42.9% of those over 64.