Many libraries offer summer reading programs for teens and children in coordination with school districts. These reading programs can contain events such as movie nights, raffles or specialty workshops. According to Bertin 2004 a study by the U. S. Department of Education found that 95% of all public libraries offered a summer reading program. These programs are used to prevent summer learning loss. Children's programs in libraries began around the turn of the century beginning with the Cleveland Library League in 1895. For more information about the early development of children’s librarianship see McDowell 1995 Early reading programs focused on the quality of the books and contained required reading, but newer education trends focus on breadth of reading to create an “avid reader,” as is discussed in The Enduring Effects of Education by Herbert H. Hyman, Charles R. Wright and John Shelton Reed.