The Republic of China National Identification Card is an identity document issued to all Taiwan citizens that have a household registration in the Taiwan Area of the Republic of China. While the Republic of China Passport allows for entry into Taiwan, the Identification Card is used for virtually all other activities that require identity verification within Taiwan such as opening bank accounts, renting apartments, employment applications and voting. In fact, it is the possession of the Republic of China National Identification Card, rather than the ROC Passport, that grants the holder the right of abode within the Taiwan Area.
The Identification Card contains the holder's photo, ID number, Chinese name, and (Minguo calendar) date of birth. The back of the card contains more detailed information, including the person's registered address where official correspondence is sent, as well as the names of his/her parents and spouse.
If the person moves, he/she must re-register at a municipal office (). Unlike the Republic of China passport which can be issued overseas at Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices, the National Identification Card is only issued in Taiwan at municipal offices. Dual Passport holders that have a household registration can only apply for the Identification Card after they enter Taiwan using the Republic of China Passport. Male dual passport holders who register for the Identification Card also become eligible for military conscription within the Republic of China, unless the person have overseas status ().
ROC Passport holders without a household registration can obtain the ID card if they reside in Taiwan for one contiguous year without leaving. During this time they are also not allowed to take up employment.
Possession of the Identification Card along with the Republic China Passport are required to obtain the PRC Taiwan Compatriot Pass for entry into Mainland China.
Foreigners resident in Taiwan are required to carry an Alien Resident Certificate (ARC), which serves the many non-citizen related functions of the ID card.