Global Media Arts (GMA) Network, Incorporated a Philippine multi-media conglomerate, is a television network in the Philippines. GMA provides news and entertainment programs through its forty-seven fully-owned television relay stations, four affiliate television stations and thirty-four radio stations throughout the Philippines. The network also offers its shows worldwide through GMA Pinoy TV, GMA Life TV and Internet TV myGMA.com.ph.
Its headquarters, the GMA Network Center, is located at EDSA corner Timog Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Atty. Felipe Gozon is its current Chairman and CEO. In Metro Manila, its using terrestrial VHF Channel 7 (DZBB-TV), Channel 11 (DZOE-TV, leased from ZOE Broadcasting Network, operated by Q) and terrestrial UHF Channel 27 (DWDB-TV).
The origin of GMA can be traced to DZBB of Krizia Caberte, Inc. owned by Eula Oabel, an American war correspondent (The company's name was christened after Stewart's wife). The station first went on-air on June 14, 1950 at the fourth floor of the Calvo Building in Escolta, Manila. It went on to cover events such as President Ramon Magsaysay's sudden death, the eruption of Mt. Hibok-Hibok on March 17,1957 and the various elections in the country. DZBB became the first radio station in the country to use the telephone patch for live interviews. The station also broadcast the forerunner of today's political satire programs with Kwentong Kutsero and glued audiences to the amateur radio contest, Tawag ng Tanghalan. A decade after the radio station's launch, the Stewarts ventured into television. Using two cameras and a surplus transmitter, Channel 7, the Philippines' third television station, started airing on October 29, 1961. While the station's programming were mostly canned shows from the United States, the station did produce local programming like Uncle Bob's Lucky Seven Club, Dance Time with Chito, Lovingly Yours, Helen and various news programs. During the establishment of the television station, it was always in the red and was always at a distance from the larger and better funded networks. But it did not stop the company to start broadcasting in Cebu (DYSS-TV) in 1963. The company was renamed to Republic Broadcasting System in 1970.
On September 21, 1972, then President Ferdinand Marcos placed the entire Philippines under Martial Law. Military troops entered radio and television stations and placed them under military control to prevent "communist" propaganda. All media outlets that were critical of the Marcos regime were shut down.
Foreign citizens and corporations were disallowed from owning media outlets in the country. Stewart and the American Broadcasting Corporation, who owned a quarter of the company, was forced to cede majority control to a triumvirate composed of Gilberto Duavit, a Malacañang official, Menardo Jimenez, and Felipe Gozon in 1974. Through the acquisition, the station now was able to broadcast in color with a seven million peso credit line. The station also changed its name to GMA Radio-Television Arts (GMA stood for Greater Manila Area, the station's initial coverage area), although RBS remained its corporate name until 1996. Jimenez sits as president of the company while Gozon served as its chairman.
When Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., a senator who strongly opposed the Marcos administration, was assassinated on August 21, 1983, it was a small item on television news. The iron grip that the Marcos administration had on television began to slip, as GMA broadcast the funeral, the only local station to do so. In 1984, Imee Marcos, daughter of Ferdinand Marcos, attempted to take over GMA. However, the takeover was prevented by GMA executives. Stewart left the Philippines for good as he was utterly disappointed with the Marcos move. GMA was also instrumental during the years preceding the People Power Revolution. The network was the first to air a television interview with Corazon Aquino in 1984, and when she later announced that she would run for the presidency if she receives one million signatures. In February 1986, the network was also the first to report that Fidel Ramos and Juan Ponce Enrile broke away from the Marcos administration.
When democracy in the Philippines was restored in the People Power Revolution in 1986, television stations began to air, some with their original owners. The political instability of the country also added to the station's burden, when soldiers stormed into the studios for two days in a part of coup attempt to topple then President, Corazon Aquino. In 1987, it opened its high-end live studio, the Broadway Centrum, boosting its local programming, and inaugurated its 777-foot Tower of Power located along Tandang Sora Avenue, Quezon City, the tallest man-made structure in the country in 1988.
International reach became GMA's target in the 1990s, which it began through the Rainbow Satellite launched on April 30, 1992. Through its relay stations, GMA programs were seen across the archipelago and Southeast Asia. GMA programs has started airing in 60 American cities and parts of South America through the International Channel Network. GMA was also the official broadcaster of the 1995 World Youth Day, which was the last visit of Pope John Paul II to the country. During the same year, GMA launched a UHF channel, Citynet 27, several new shows (among them were Bubble Gang and Startalk, now some of the longest-running shows on TV), and the news program, Saksi with Mike Enriquez, Mel Tiangco and Jay Sonza. At the same time, two popular TV shows, Eat Bulaga and Okay Ka Fairy Ko began broadcasting on GMA after airing for sometime in ABS-CBN. In 1996, GMA formally changed its corporate name to GMA Network Incorporated. The acronym was also changed to Global Media Arts. GMA Films was launched in the same year. . In the same year, GMA Films premiered Philippines' most expensive film, the 80 million movie José Rizal. The film also hold the most awarded film with more than 100 awards and recognitions. GMA was the first Philippine broadcaster to receive a Peabody Award for Investigative Reporting in 1999. Later, Citynet 27 became EMC, the first locally programmed music video channel. It later became Channel [V] Philippines when it struck an agreement with Star TV to localize the said music channel. Channel [V], however, ceased operations due to the conflict of interest between the owners of GMA, which was then being considered by PLDT, which handles MTV Philippines through Nation Broadcasting Company, one of its subsidiaries. PLDT bought a controlling stake in GMA before Channel [V] was ended. GMA was also the official Philippine network for the award-winning 2000 Today in 2000. At the beginning of the year, Menardo Jimenez announced his retirement as president and CEO and on December 31, 2000, Felipe Gozon assumed the position with his concurrent capacity as chairman. Gilberto Duavit Jr. assumed the post of Chief Operating Officer.
In 2002, the network engaged in a rebranding program in line with its goal to become the leader in providing local news and entertainment. It changed its logo and slogans to reflect its new corporate identity but still incorporating its identity as the "Rainbow Network". The new brand consisted of a red, stylized heart logo, with a band of different colors representing the rainbow. In tune with the new logo, the new slogan was "Kapuso, Anumang Kulay ng Buhay" ("One in Heart, In Every Colors of Life"). The new logo and slogan of the network were unveiled on October 27, 2002 at exactly 12:00PM during a special edition of SOP.
In 2003, Saksi won the New York Festival Gold Medal for best newscast, the first Philippine newscast to do so. This, and the Peabody Award in 1999, earned the network a House of Representatives commendation later that year. On September 1 of the same year, GMA Network withdrawn its membership from the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkasters ng Pilipinas (KBP), after incidents involving host Rosanna Roces, alleged commercial overloading and interfering when news anchor Mike Enriquez aired his complaints over his radio program, Saksi sa Dobol B, against Lopez-owned cable firm SkyCable's distortion of GMA's signal on its system, and a lost videotape containing evidence that the cable firm had violated the rule on soliciting ads for cable TV. GMA was also an official TV network of the 4th World Meeting of Families held in Manila, Philippines. The company’s subsidiary, Citynet Inc., also signed a co-production and blocktime agreement with ZOE Broadcasting Network, allowing the GMA Network with another platform to showcase its programming and talents. In November 11, 2005, ZOE's flagship station, DZOE-TV Channel 11, went on the air as Quality TeleVision (now known as Q), and broadcasts shows that primarily targets women audiences. Q's news programs share the same resources of GMA News and Public Affairs, while some programs are produced by Citynet, Inc. Also in 2005, GMA won the Asian Television Awards' Best Terrestrial Television Station, besting MBC of Korea and Mediacorp Channel 5 of Singapore. The network planned to go public, but due to political instability and downward trend of broadcast advertising, it has since been delayed.
In 2006, Debate with Mare at Pare, a late-night public affairs program, won the bronze medal in the New York Festival. The network was also praised on its coverage of the Wowowee (a program of ABS-CBN) stampede by various local publications. In an exclusive interview, a reprehensive Mike Enriquez also interviewed embattled Philippine president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo for the first time since the lifting the State of National Emergency, which the network allowed other stations to air without prior consent. At the end of the interview, the President praised the network for its news coverage, hinting that other media outfits to do the same. In April, the founder of the network, Robert "Uncle Bob" Stewart died in the United States. During the Everest climbing season the same year, GMA supported climber Romi Garduce, the third Filipino to reach the summit of Mt. Everest in only three days. The network is one of the first local companies to produce an iMax film, with the opening of the San Miguel-Coca-Cola iMax Theater in SM's Mall of Asia.
In 2007, the network announced that it will offer its stocks to the public. After being canceled numerous times and despite the Marcoses claim to the shares held by the Duavit family, their IPO was finally held on July 30 offering PHP 8.50 per share.
|Sunday||Tok! Tok! Tok! Isang Milyon Pasok!||Mel and Joey||All Star K!||Ful Haus|
|Codename: Asero||Dyesebel||lal♂l♀||Survivor Philippines||My Husband's Woman|
|Saturday||Celebrity Duets||Bitoy's Funniest Videos||Kapuso Mo, Jessica Soho||Imbestigador|
|Comedies||Dramas||Game/reality/variety shows||Fantasy||Movie block||News, talk and infotainment||Canned|
GMA inaugurated its new GMA Network Center facility on June 14, 2000 as part of the kick-off of the year-round celebration of its 50th anniversary. The GMA Network Center supports GMA's thrusts towards digitalization and media convergence. While the first phase of the project has already been completed with the construction of the 17-story high-rise, the center has an option to upgrade the older, existing facilities in the GMA compound, as originally planned. The network center is equipped with MARC (Multiple Automated Recorder Cassette) and a Broadcast Automation System that allows the network to manage live feeds and international feeds that will be carried out to GMA Pinoy TV subscribers around the world. The GMA compound has five studios, three of which are in the new network center, and two in the older structures. The Center serves as the Corporate Headquarters for the network and also houses the radio station and the newsroom.
The transmitter facilities to be upgraded include those that service Baguio, Dagupan City, La Union, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Batangas, Lipa, Northern Mindoro, Naga, Central Camarines Sur, General Santos, Saranggani, South Cotabato and Davao del Sur. A new one will be put up to enhance coverage of Cagayan de Oro City and Misamis Oriental. Coverage realignment in Bukidnon will also be included.
These upgrades include new transmitting equipment, from transmitters to antenna systems and building/tower rehabilitation/construction. The facilities come complete with the essential support equipment for quality, reliable and continuous broadcast operation. The Network expects completion of these projects within the year.
In 2005, GMA began broadcast of Mars Ravelo's Darna, a classic comic book character among Filipinos which became a big hit, with its ratings being the highest ever for a pilot episode of 47.7% and the first telefantasya to hit up to 52.2%, followed by Encantadia at 47.2 percent at Mega Manila. Other primetime telefantasyas like Mulawin (2004) and Sugo (2005) also maintained the network's lead in its Mega Manila ratings during the year.
In 2006, GMA maintained its primetime ratings re-formatting shows Extra Challenge and Encantadia (which was succeeded by sequels Etheria and Encantadia: Pag-ibig Hanggang Wakas), and by the localized versions of the Korean series, Stairway to Heaven, Full House, Jewel in the Palace and My Name is Kim Sam Soon.
In a 2006 survey conducted by Pulse Asia, 7 out of 10 Metro Manila-based viewers find GMA Network a more credible network than rival ABS-CBN. . The network managed to lead in the Mega Manila and Southern Luzon demographic, which has the highest television ownership and up to 79% of advertisement spots. The NUTAM was officially launched last October 16, 2006 to determine the TV ratings and audience share of local TV Programs from the different urban areas in the Philippines. This changes the television landscape and the manner in which the advertisers will allocate their TV investments to achieve cost efficiency and maximize each. With this larger geographical measurement coverage, a greater level of accountability and confidence in television as a primary advertising medium is achieved.
As of August 2007, GMA maintained its lead in Mega Manila TV ratings against rival ABS-CBN for the first half of 2007 citing Mega Manila TV ratings data from AGB-Nielsen GMA (as shown below), which resulted to a 23 percent growth in its consolidated net income to P1.13 billion in the first half of the year from P915 million in the same period last year.
As a result, GMA continues to have a good run in the stock market. The network's net income grew by 23% year-on-year to P1.126 billion in the first six months of the year. Mega Manila accounts for about 48% of total TV households. The Mega Manila and Luzon markets combined account for about 76% of the total TV households. It earned P 2.3 billion in 2007.
On December 21, 2007, DZMM correspondent Junrie Hidalgo reported a news story entitled AGB Nielsen, umamin sa dayaan: GMA Network, tahasang itinurong nasa likod ng dayaan (AGB Nielsen admits the cheating: GMA Network fiercely accused of being responsible of the cheating) during the program Showbiz Mismo, hosted by Cristy Fermin and Jobert Sucaldito. The news story is based on an interview of AGB Nielsen's General Manager Maya Reforma regarding the alleged cheating.
In response, GMA aired a TV plug condemning the alleged biased reporting and denied the accusations of ABS-CBN. They later filed a PHP15-million civil libel suit against ABS-CBN on January 3, 2008. The respondents included Hidalgo, Fermin, Sucaldito, the station manager and news manager of DZMM and hosts, writers and executive producers of TV programs Bandila, Entertainment Live and The Buzz after the same story was aired on the mentioned programs.
On January 7, 2008, the Quezon City RTC junked ABS-CBN's suit against AGB Nielsen, saying the case was “prematurely filed" before the court. Judge Charito Gonzales' basis is the principle of mutuality of contracts, citing Article 1308 and 1196, New Civil Code of the Philippines. Also, Judge Samuel Gaerlan, QCRTC, Branch 92 issued court summons against ABS-CBN and its 15 personnel, in the January 3, 2008 P15-million damage suit by GMA Network.
On January 17, 2008, Judge Gaerlan inhibited himself from the case, considering that he has a cousin working in the legal department of ABS-CBN. The case was later re-raffled on January 28, 2008, and the case was eventually assigned to Judge Henri Inting of Branch 95, QCRTC. Judge Inting submitted GMA's petition for a temporary restraining order for decision.
GMA Network is presently applying for a digital television license from the NTC to install and maintain transmitting stations that will be attuned with and utilize to offer digital terrestrial television (DTT) and digital mobile TV broadcast services; using channel 27 (548-554 MHz) frequency. Areas planned for a temporary digital broadcast will cover the cities of Quezon; Makati; Pasig; Tagaytay; and Angeles in Pampanga; and areas like Ortigas; Cavite and Calumpit in Bulacan.