was a major hurricane
that formed in September 1959, the strongest during the 1959 Atlantic hurricane season
and the most intense to strike the United States
since Hurricane Hazel
in 1954. The system was first noted as an area of thunderstorms east of the Lesser Antilles
which moved just north of the Greater Antilles
, quickly intensifying into a hurricane on September 22
. Gracie was a storm that was very difficult to forecast, with its movement unpredictable. After five days of erratic motion, Gracie became a major hurricane which struck South Carolina
, and weakened as it moved up the Appalachians
, bringing much needed rain to a drought-plagued region. Much of the destruction related with Gracie was centered on Beaufort, South Carolina
. Gracie became an extratropical cyclone
on September 30
while moving through the Eastern United States.
An area of squally
weather was first noted a few hundred miles east of the Lesser Antilles on September 18
. The convective area organized into a tropical depression near the north coast of Hispaniola
on September 20
. After moving west-northwestward for a day, it turned northeastward, where upper level winds were very favorable and steering currents were very weak. On September 22
Gracie was named as a tropical depression before it developed into a tropical storm, followed by reaching hurricane strength later that night. It turned to the east on September 25
, and turned back west to west-northwest on September 27
as a stable anticyclone built in to its north.
Gracie quickly strengthened and reached its peak of winds on September 29, but cooler air and land interaction weakened it to a Category 3 major hurricane at the time of its landfall at 1625 UTC over St. Helena Sound near the south end of Edisto Island in South Carolina. After landfall, Gracie moved inland and north and became extratropical on September 30.
A hurricane watch was issued for the coast of the United States from Savannah, Georgia
to Wilmington, North Carolina
at 1600 UTC on September 28
, which were quickly updated to hurricane warnings by 1900 UTC the same day. By 1900 UTC, gale warnings were in effect from Daytona Beach, Florida
to Savannah, Georgia as well as from Wilmington to Morehead City, North Carolina
. At 1200 UTC on September 29
, gale warnings were dropped south of Brunswick, Georgia
. At 2200 UTC, gale warnings were extended northward to Cape May, New Jersey
, including Chesapeake Bay
and Delaware Bay
. At 0400 UTC on September 30
, all warnings south of Cape Hatteras were dropped, leaving gale warnings in effect from Cape Hatteras northward. At 1000 UTC, small craft were advised to remain in port from Cape May northward to Block Island, Rhode Island
. By 1600 UTC, due to Gracie's continued weakening, all remaining gale warnings were downgraded to small craft warnings.
Georgia and South Carolina
Storm surge flooding was minimal due to the storm's landfall near the time of low tide. However, Charleston still recorded their highest tide since 1940. Along the coast of southern South Carolina, the storm tide was measured up to above mean lower low water (the average level of the lowest low tide each day). The United States Coast Guard vessel Bramble evacuated people stranded in Savannah and Charleston on September 30. Gracie killed 10 people in South Carolina and Georgia, mainly due to wind and rain-induced automobile accidents, falling trees and electrocution by live wires. The Garden Club of South Carolina replaced numerous trees after the storm. Wind damage was quite significant across South Carolina, particularly the city of Beaufort, South Carolina, with many downed trees, telephone poles, and streetlights. Also, numerous windows were shattered and shingles were torn off of roofs. A number of creeks overflowed causing floodwaters that, in areas, were several feet deep. The opening of the Beaufort Center of the University of South Carolina was delayed due to Gracie. It would be 30 years before another major hurricane stuck South Carolina; Hurricane Hugo in September 1989.
Elsewhere in the United States
Heavy rains fell well ahead of the storm along an inverted trough extending north of the storm, causing between the mornings of September 28
and September 29
at Norfolk, Virginia
. The highest rainfall amount measured during the storm was at Big Meadows. The storm spawned seven tornadoes in all. A few of the tornadoes
which accompanied the dissipating storm through Virginia
killed twelve people near Charlottesville, Virginia
. Other tornadoes touched down in the Carolinas and Pennsylvania. For the most part, rainfall from Gracie was beneficial as it moved up the Appalachians since the area had been in a drought preceding the cyclone
Long term impact
Edisto Beach, South Carolina
was changed forever by Gracie, due to human efforts to renourish the beach
after its passage. Most of the shell hash beach currently at Edisto was placed there after Gracie. In order to expand the beach, an inland marsh
was excavated and moved to the shoreline. This created highly desirable beach front property which led to new development along the coast seaward of Palmetto Boulevard, but also created an environmental catastrophe along the nearby ocean floor. A species of isopod
which grows in coastal estuaries, the Cyathura Polita, disappeared after the passage of this hurricane from the Ashepoo River
in South Carolina. The Kermadec Petrel
, a bird, was swept to Lookout Mountain Sanctuary in Pennsylvania
during Gracie, marking the first time it appeared in North America.
Gracie's retirement status is unclear; some sources list it as being retired, although the official NHC list omits Gracie. However, the name has not been used since; Hurricane Gracie was before the formal lists were created, so it was not replaced with any particular name.