Sharia and Canon law differ from other religious laws in that Canon law is the codes of law of the Catholic, Anglican and Orthodox churches (like in a civil law tradition), while Sharia law derives many of its laws from juristic precedent and reasoning by analogy (like in a common law tradition).
Hindu law is largely based on the Manu Smriti (smriti of Manu). It was recognized by the British after their rule of India but its influenced largely waned after the establishment of the Republic of India, which is secular.
The Torah (also the Five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch) is the basis of God's covenant law, not oral tradition. According to rabbinic tradition there are 613 mitzvot in the Torah; mitzvot (singular mitzvah) means "commandment" or good deed. The mitzvot in the Torah (also called the Mosaic law after Moses) pertain to nearly every aspect of human life; some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups (the Kohanim and Leviyim, members of the tribe of Levi, some only to farmers within the Land of Israel. Many laws were only applicable when the Temple in Jerusalem existed; after the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans in the year 70 during the Great Jewish Revolt, Jewish oral law was developed through intensive and expansive interpretation of the written Torah.
Halakha (הלכה; literally "walking"), the rabbinic Jewish way of life is based on a combined reading of the Torah, and the oral tradition, including the Mishnah, the halakhic Midrash, the Talmud, and its commentaries. The Halakhah has developed gradually through a variety of legal and quasi-legal mechanisms, including judicial decisions, legislative enactments, and customary law. The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, are referred to as responsa. Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law were written based on Talmudic literature and responsa. The most important code, the Shulchan Aruch, guides the religious practice of most Orthodox and some Conservative Jews.
Within the framework of Christianity, there are at least three possible definitions for law. One is the Torah/Mosaic Law (from what Christians consider to be the Old Testament) also called Divine Law. Another is the instructions of Jesus of Nazareth in the Gospel (sometimes referred to as the Law of Christ). A third is canon law in the Catholic, Anglican, and Orthodox churches; canon law is the organized system of bylaws for the regulation of the affairs of those churches.
In Christianity, law is often contrasted with grace (see also Law and Gospel): the contrast here speaks to attempts to gain salvation by obedience to a code of laws as opposed to seeking salvation through faith in the atonement made by Jesus on the cross. Compare legalism and antinomianism.
Muslims in Islamic societies have traditionally viewed Islamic law as essential. Islamic law is called Sharia (Arabic: شريعة, "the street/way") and Islamic jurisprudence is called Fiqh. Islamic law is now the most widely used religious law, and one of the three most common legal systems of the world alongside common law and civil law.
In contrast to other religious laws, Islamic Sharia law (and Fiqh jurisprudence) is based on legal precedent and reasoning by analogy (Qiyas), and is thus considered a precursor to common law. During the Islamic Golden Age, classical Islamic law had a fairly significant influence on the development of common law, and also influenced the development of several civil law institutions.
In Sunni Islam, the work of the imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855 CE) has been very influential. Ibn Hanbal developed his "Five Basic Juristic Principles," a sort of hierarchy of authoritative sources of Islamic law:
The Hanbali madh'hab (school) alone maintained its own theological view, unlike the Hanafi (which adopted the Maturidi doctrine) or the Shafi`i and Maliki (which adopted the Ash'ari doctrine). The copious volume of narrations from Imam Ahmad dealing with specific issues of doctrine made it extremely difficult for his followers to adhere to any other, yet still remain faithful followers.
Here are a few examples of laws and basic religious observances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which are considered obligatory for Bahá'ís: