relief

relief

[ri-leef]
relief, in sculpture, three-dimensional projection from a flat background. In alto-relievo, or high relief, the protrusion is great; basso-relievo, or bas-relief, protrudes only slightly; and mezzo-relievo is intermediate between the two. Ancient Egyptians and Etruscans also used cavo relievo, intaglio, or sunken relief, in which the design is incised deeper than the background. High relief, although also used in ancient times, reached its climax in the baroque period. Bas-relief is commonly employed on coins and on medals.
or relief printing or typographic printing

In commercial printing, process by which many copies are produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper. Letterpress is the oldest traditional printing technique, the only important one from the time of Johannes Gutenberg (circa 1450) until lithography (late 18th century) and especially offset printing (early 20th century). The ink-bearing surface for a page of text was originally assembled letter by letter and line by line. The Monotype and Linotype were the first keyboard-activated typesetting machines. Letterpress can produce high-quality work at high speed, but requires much time to prepare and adjust the press. For the sake of speed, newspapers are now printed by the offset process.

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Public or private aid to people in economic need because of natural disasters, wars, economic upheaval, chronic unemployment, or other conditions that prevent self-sufficiency. A distinction may be drawn between relief targeting upheavals and natural disasters and relief of chronic social conditions, now usually referred to as welfare. In 17th-century China the government maintained ever-normal granaries for use in the event of famine. Through the 19th century, disaster relief in Europe consisted largely of emergency grants of food, clothing, and medical care through hastily organized local committees. In the 20th century, disaster relief became one of the chief activities of the International Red Cross and other international agencies. Assistance to the needy from public funds has traditionally been strictly limited; in England, the Poor Law Reform Act of 1834 required people able to work to enter a workhouse in order to receive public assistance. The U.S. government responded to the Great Depression with the New Deal, which emphasized work relief programs such as the Works Progress Administration. In the later 20th century, the work requirement was abandoned in most countries, and the needy received direct cash payments, though in the U.S. the movement for welfare reform resulted in the passage in 1996 of “workfare” laws cutting off relief for most able-bodied welfare recipients who failed to find a job or perform community service.

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Administrative body (1943–47) for an extensive social-welfare program for war-ravaged nations. It distributed relief supplies and services, including shelter, food, and medicine, and helped with agricultural and economic rehabilitation. Its functions were later taken over by the International Refugee Organization, the World Health Organization, and UNICEF.

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CARE is one of the largest international relief and humanitarian organizations in the world, with programs in nearly 70 countries. Worldwide staffing exceeds 12,000, most of whom come from the nation in which they work.

CARE (originally "Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe", and later "Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere"), was a co-founded in 1945 by Arthur Ringland who had the idea and the perseverance to secure financial backing for overseas food relief packages, Lincoln Clark who focused on practical administration and Wallace Campbell who limited its scope to include voluntary agencies. The relief came in "CARE Packages", which were U.S. Army surplus 10-in-1 food parcels left over from the planned U.S. invasion of Japan. The service let Americans send the packages to friends and families in Europe. Each CARE Package cost $10 and was guaranteed to reach its addressee within four months.

CARE's mission has evolved over the decades. CARE continues to provide emergency relief during and after disasters, but the organization today focuses on addressing underlying causes of poverty. In areas such as health, education and economic development, CARE works to empower women, because experience has shown that women's gains yield dramatic benefits for families and communities. CARE also advocates for policies that defend human rights and promote the eradication of poverty.

Official mission statement

To serve individuals and families in the poorest communities in the world. Drawing strength from our global diversity, resources and experience, to promote innovative solutions and advocate for global responsibility. Facilitate lasting change by:

  • Strengthening capacity for self-help
  • Providing economic opportunity
  • Delivering relief in emergencies (Non-US)
  • Influencing policy decisions at all levels
  • Addressing discrimination in all its forms

Guided by the aspirations of local communities, CARE pursues its mission with both excellence and compassion because the people who are served deserve nothing less.

Countries of operation

As of 2007, CARE operates programs in the following countries:

Wallace Justin Campbell

Wallace Campbell was born in 1911 in Three Forks, Montana. from He went to the Universty of Oregon and earned a Masters Degree in Sociology. He started along with his friends, Arthur Ringland and Lincoln Clark, the CARE program. CARE stands for Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere. He once said, "... The best way to help people prevent hunger is in self help programs." He was extremely dedicated to his cause, and was essentially the cause of billions of people in over 150 countries' survival. He died on january 7, 1998 in Los Angeles, California

Campaigns

CARE's campaigns in the fight against global poverty include:

  • The World Hunger Campaign - Donations to CARE sponsor feeding programs, education, microcredit loans, sustainable agriculture and other projects designed to reduce world hunger and poverty.
  • Education – CARE partners with governments, communities and organizations to improve the quality and accessibility of basic education.
  • HIV/AIDS – CARE provides educational programs and supports grassroots efforts to reduce the spread of the disease and to aid those affected by HIV/AIDS.
  • Victories Over Poverty - CARE works with communities to provide emergency relief, and long-term solutions to poverty.
  • CARE for the Child - Supporters may automatically contribute funds via the CARE for the Child monthly giving program.

In 2003, CARE delivered supplies and equipment, including food, water, repair water systems and sanitation kits to pediatric hospitals, health centers, and vulnerable families in southern Iraq. In 2004, the organization suspended its operations in Iraq in response to the kidnapping and apparent death of Margaret Hassan, CARE's director of operations in Iraq. The last CARE project Hassan completed was one for children with spinal injuries.

In December 2007, CARE announced its sponsorship of the Covance-CARE Early Childhood Development (ECD) Initiative for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Rwanda. The program supports the renovation of two existing nursery schools, the remodeling of three existing buildings into community day care centers, and funds the continued operations of the childcare centers. "The long-term impact of deprivation in early childhood has been well documented," said Elie Nduwayesu, CARE International Orphans and Vulnerable Children Program Manager in Rwanda. "The majority of children who are not in school in Africa are girls and are more likely to experience abuse, neglect, and child domestic labor. The ECD program will protect these children from all types of abuse and contribute significantly to their healthy development."

CARE’s response to Avian Influenza in Asia is in keeping with its overall strategy of building communities’ capacity to prepare for, respond to and reduce risk from disaster. The spread of this virus has in part been accelerated because of poor living conditions, unsafe hygiene practices, unhygienic markets, poor sanitation systems and lack of early warning systems. CARE is working with communities in these vulnerable environments to raise awareness and design programs that reduce unsafe conditions. They are also working to prevent the potential loss of lives and livelihoods, with particular emphasis on those most vulnerable, including women, children and the elderly.

CARE is a partner with the CORE Group’s work on Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Project (PIP) . The goal of CORE PIP is to create a generic training program for community level response during a pandemic which would target local leaders from multiple sectors who would need to implement non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce person-to-person disease transmission, community- and home-based care of the ill, and other interventions during a pandemic.

See also

External links

CARE member web sites

CARE Country Office websites

Other sites

Notes

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