In modern byte-addressable computers, each address identifies a single byte of storage; data too large to be stored in a single byte may reside in multiple bytes occupying a sequence of consecutive addresses. Some microprocessors were designed to be word-addressable, so that the addressable storage unit was larger than a byte. Examples include the Texas Instruments TMS9900 and the National Semiconductor IMP-16, both of which used 16 bit words.
In a computer program, an absolute address, also called explicit address or specific address, is a memory address that uniquely identifies a location in memory. This is opposed to a relative address, that is not unique and specifies a location only in relation to some other location (the base address).
The interesting concept about items stored in memory: not only they can be interpreted as data—text data, binary numeric data, and so forth—but also as instructions themselves, in a uniform manner. This uniformity was introduced with von Neumann architecture and has been prevalent in computers since the 1950s.
Instructions in a storage address are contextually interpreted as command words to the system's main processing unit, and data is retrieved by such instructions placed in an internal and isolated memory structure called a storage register, where the subsequent instruction can manipulate it in conjunction with data retrieved into other internal memory locations (or internal addresses). Registers are the memory addresses within the part of the central processing unit known as the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which responds to binary instructions (machine code) fetched into instruction registers selecting combinatorial logic determining which data registers should be added, subtracted, circulated (shifted), and so forth at the low machine language level of binary manipulation of data.
A word size is characteristic to a given computer architecture. It denotes the number of bits that a CPU can process at one time. Historically it has been sized in multiples of four and eight bits (nibbles and bytes, respectively), so sizes of 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64, and larger came into vogue with technological advances.
Very often, when referring to the word size of a modern computer, one is also describing the size of address space on that computer. For instance, a computer said to be "32-bit" also usually allows 32-bit memory addresses; a byte-addressable 32-bit computer can address bytes of memory, or 4 gibibytes (GiB). This seems logical and useful, as it allows one address to be efficiently stored in one word.
However, this is not always the case. Computers often have memory addresses larger or smaller than their word size. For instance, almost all 8-bit processors, such as 6502, supported 16-bit addresses, or else they would have been limited to a mere 256 byte capacity. Similarly, the 16-bit Intel 8086 supported 20-bit addressing, allowing it to access 1 MiB rather than 64 KiBs of memory. Also popular Pentium processors since introduction of Physical Address Extensions (PAE) support 36-bit physical addresses, while generally having only a 32-bit word.
A modern byte-addressable 64-bit computer—with proper OS support—has the capability of addressing bytes (or 16 exbibytes) which as of 2008 is considered practically unlimited, being far more than the total amount of RAM ever manufactured.
Virtual memory also allows enlarging the address space, the set of addresses a program can utilize and thus allows computers to make use of secondary storage that looks, to programs, like main memory. For example, virtual address space might contain twice as many addresses as main memory with the extra addresses mapped to hard disk space in the form of a swap file (also known as page file). It copies them back (called swapping) into main memory as soon as they are needed. These movements are performed in the background and in a way invisible for programs.
Patent No. 7,617,382 Issued on Nov. 10, Assigned to Intel for Relative Address Decompressing Apparatus (Oregon, California Inventors)
Nov 11, 2009; ALEXANDRIA, Va., Nov. 11 -- Michael J. St. Clair and John A. Miller, both of Portland, Ore., Hitesh Ahuja of Thousand Oaks,...