Definitions

regulated by

List of countries by continent

This is a list of the countries of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags and capitals. This list contains:

However, this list does not contain de facto independent states that are generally unrecognized.

For a detailed discussion of how the world is divided into continents, see the articles Continent and Borders of the continents.

In this list, countries are classified according to the United Nations Statistics Division. There are countries that span more than one continent, according to either geographical or political and historical criteria. For the partition of countries into continents according to geographical criteria, see here.

Africa

Eurasia

Asia

Europe

Americas

North America

South America

Oceania

Oceania is a geopolitical region, rather than a continent, consisting of many countries in the Pacific Ocean, including those in the continent of Australia and the Pacific Islands.

Antarctica

Antarctica, including all territorial claims by sovereign states, is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, which defines it as all land and ice shelves south of 60°S. Several dependent territories include sub-Antarctic islands north of 60°S.

Partition of countries according to geographical criteria

Boundaries of Africa

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries of Africa, see here.

Suez Canal

Considering the Suez Canal as a boundary between Africa and Asia, the following change from the UN definition occurs:

  • Egypt: Africa, west of the Suez Canal; to the east, Asia.

Continental shelf of Africa

Considering the continental shelf of Africa, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

Boundaries between Asia and Europe

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between Asia and Europe, see here.

Sea of Marmara and Turkish Straits

Considering the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits (the Bosporus and the Dardanelles) as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following change from the UN definition occurs:

  • Turkey: Asia, east and south of Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits; to the west and north, Europe.

Ural definitions

Considering the Ural definition that follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains, and then the Ural River until the Caspian Sea, as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

  • Kazakhstan: Asia, east of the Ural River; to the west, Europe.
  • Russia: Europe, west and north of the Ural Mountains watershed and the Ural River; to the east and south, Asia.

Considering the Ural definition that follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains, and then the Ural River until it reaches Kazakhstan's border for the first time, and then the Or River and the Emba River, as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

  • Kazakhstan: Asia, east of the Or River and the Emba River; to the west, Europe.
  • Russia: Europe, west of the Ural Mountains watershed and the Ural River (until it reaches Kazakhstan's border for the first time); to the east, Asia.

Caucasus definitions

Considering the Caucasus definition that follows the watershed of the Greater Caucasus of the Caucasus Mountains as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

  • Azerbaijan: Asia, south of the Greater Caucasus watershed; to the north, Europe (very small area).
  • Georgia: Asia, south of the Greater Caucasus watershed; to the north, Europe (very small area).
  • Russia: Europe, north of the Greater Caucasus watershed; to the south, Asia (very small area).

Considering the Caucasus definition that follows the Meso-Caucaso, marked by the Rioni River and the Kura River (from Tbilisi on), as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

  • Azerbaijan: Asia, south of the Kura River; to the north, Europe.
  • Georgia: Asia, south of the Rioni River and the Kura River (from Tbilisi on); to the north, Europe.

Considering the Caucasus definition that follows the Kuma-Manych Depression, marked by the Kuma River and the Manych River, as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following change from the UN definition occurs:

  • Russia: Europe, north of the Kuma River and the Manych River; to the south, Asia.

Though very rare, considering the Caucasus definition that follows the watershed of the Lesser Caucasus of the Caucasus Mountains as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

  • Armenia: Europe; isolated spots in the south in Asia.
  • Azerbaijan: Europe; isolated spots in the south in Asia.
  • Georgia: Europe; isolated spots in the south in Asia.
  • Iran: Asia; isolated spots in the northwest in Europe.
  • Turkey: Asia; isolated spots in the northeast in Europe.

Continental shelfs of Asia and Europe

Considering the continental shelfs of Asia and Europe, the following change from the UN definition occurs:

Boundaries between Asia and North America

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between Asia and North America, see here.

Continental shelfs of Asia and North America

Considering the continental shelfs of Asia and North America, the following change from the UN definition occurs:

Boundaries between Europe and North America

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between Europe and North America, see here.

Continental shelfs of Europe and North America

Considering the continental shelfs of Europe and North America, the following change from the UN definition occurs:

Boundaries between North and South America

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between North and South America, see here.

Panama Canal

Considering the Panama Canal as a boundary between North and South America, the following change from the UN definition occurs:

  • Panama: North America, west of the Panama Canal; to the east, South America.

Continental shelfs of North and South America

Considering the continental shelfs of North and South America, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

Boundaries of Oceania

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries of Oceania, see here.

Asia-Australasia divisions

Considering the Asia-Australasia division that follows the anthropologic Melanesian Line as a boundary between Asia and Oceania, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

Considering the Asia-Australasia division that follows the zoologic Wallace Line as a boundary between Asia and Oceania, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

Though very rare, considering the Malay Archipelago as being part of Oceania, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

Pacific Islands

Considering all Pacific Islands as being part of Oceania, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

Boundaries of Antarctica

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries of Antarctica, see here.

Sub-Antarctic islands

Considering sub-Antarctic islands north of 60°S which are fully integrated with its country, the following changes from the UN definition occur:

Notes

See also

Definition of continents

Lists of countries

External links

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