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regius

Annaba

[an-nah-buh]
formerly Bône

Seaport (pop., 2004 est.: 410,700), northeastern Algeria. Identified with the port of ancient Hippo (or Hippo Regius), it was a rich city of Roman Africa. It was home to St. Augustine 396–430. Severely damaged by the Vandals in 431, it passed to the Byzantine Empire in 533 before being overrun by the Arabs in the 7th century and named Bona. It was occupied by the French in 1832 when they conquered Algeria. Modern Annaba is Algeria's chief exporter of minerals; it also serves as a trading port and port of call.

Learn more about Annaba with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Titulus Regius (the royal title in Latin) is a statute of the Parliament of England, issued in 1483, by which the title of King of England was given to Richard III of England.

It is an official declaration that describes why the Parliament had found (the year before) that the marriage of Edward IV of England to Elizabeth Woodville had been invalid, and consequently their children were illegitimate (and, therefore, debarred from the throne), and why Richard III was proclaimed the rightful king.

The act was repealed by the first parliament of the new king, Henry VII. Henry VII also ordered his subjects to destroy all copies of it (and all related documents) without reading them. So well were his orders carried out that only one copy of the law has ever been found. A copy of the law was transcribed by a monastic chronicler into the Croyland Chronicle, where it was discovered by Sir George Buck more than a century later during the reign of James I.

The text of the repealing Act has not survived in the records of Parliament, but a contemporary law report (Year Book 1 Henry VII, Hil., plea 1) reproduces part of the text as follows:

...that the said Bill, Act and Record, be anulled and utterly destroyed, and that it be ordained by the same Authority, that the same Act and Record be taken out of the Roll of Parliament, and be cancelled and brent, and be put in perpetual oblivion.

The 100-year gap during which Titulus Regius was censored coincided with the ruling period of the Tudor Dynasty. During this period, Richard III was shown as a usurper by writers such as William Shakespeare. (See Richard III (play)).

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