refuse: see solid waste.
Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel/ specified recovered fuel (SRF) is a fuel produced by shredding municipal solid waste (MSW) or steam pressure treating in an autoclave. RDF consists largely of organic components of municipal waste such as plastics and biodegradable waste. RDF processing facilities are normally located near a source of MSW and, while an optional combustion facility is normally close to the processing facility, it may also be located at a remote location. SRF can be distinguished from RDF in the fact that it is produced to reach a standard such as CEN/343 ANAS

Processing methods

Non-combustible materials such as glass and metals are removed during the post-treatment processing cycle with an air knife or other mechanical separation processing. The residual material can be sold in its processed form (depending on the process treatment) or it may be compressed into pellets, bricks or logs and used for other purposes either stand-alone or in a recursive recycling process.

Advanced RDF processing methods (pressurised steam treatment in an autoclave) can remove or significantly reduce harmful pollutants and heavy metals for use as a material for a variety of manufacturing and related uses. RDF is extracted from MSW using mechanical heat treatment, mechanical biological treatment or waste autoclaves.

The production of RDF may involve some but not all of the following steps:

  • Preliminary liberation (not required for autoclave treatment)
  • Size screening (post-treatment step for autoclave treatment)
  • Magnetic separation (post-treatment for autoclave treatment)
  • Coarse shredding (not required for autoclave treatment)
  • Refining separation

End markets

RDF can be used in a variety of ways to produce electricity. It can be used alongside traditional sources of fuel in coal power plants. RDF can be used in the cement kiln industry, where the strict standards of the Waste Incineration Directive are met. RDF can also be fed into plasma arc gasification modules, pyrolysis plants and where the RDF is capable of being combusted cleanly or in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol, RDF can provide a funding source where unused carbon credits are sold on the open market via a carbon exchange. However, the use of municipal waste contracts and the bankability of these solutions is still a relatively new concept, thus RDF's financial advantage may be debatable.

Measurement of the biomass fraction of RDF and SRF

The biomass fraction of RDF and SRF has a monetary value under multiple greenhouse gas protocols, such as the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and the Renewable Obligation Certificate program in the United Kingdom. Biomass is considered to be carbon-neutral since the CO2 liberated from the combustion of biomass is recycled in plants. The combusted biomass fraction of RDF/SRF is used by stationary combustion operators to reduce their overall reported CO2 emissions.

Several methods have been developed by the European CEN 343 working group to determine the biomass fraction of RDF/SRF. The initial two methods developed (CEN/TS 15440) were the manual sorting method and the selective dissolution method. Since each method suffered from limitations in properly characterizing the biomass fraction, an alternative method was developed using the principles of radiocarbon dating. A technical review (CEN/TR 15591:2007) outlining the carbon-14 method was published in 2007. A technical standard of the carbon dating method (CEN/TS 15747:2008) will be published in 2008. In the United States, there is already an equivalent carbon-14 method under the standard method ASTM D6866.

Although carbon-14 dating can determine with excellent precision the biomass fraction of RDF/SRF, it cannot determine directly the biomass calorific value. Determining the calorific value is important for green certificate programs such as the Renewable Obligation Certificate program in the United Kingdom. These programs award certificates based on the energy produced from biomass. Several research papers, including the one commissioned by the Renewable Energy Association in the UK, have been published that demonstrate how the carbon-14 result can be used to calculate the biomass calorific value.

Regional use


The first full-scale waste-to-energy facility in the US was the Arnold O. Chantland Resource Recovery Plant, built in 1975 located in Ames, Iowa. This plant also produces RDF that is sent to local power plants for fuel.


The city of Manchester, in the north west of England, is in the process of awarding a contract for the use of RDF which will be produced by proposed mechanical biological treatment facilities as part of a huge PFI contract. The Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority has recently announced there is significant market interest in initial bids for the use of RDF which is projected to be produced in tonnages up to 900,000 tonnes per annum.

See also


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