|Oxidizing Agent||Reducing Agent||Reduction Potential (v)|
|Li+ + e- =||Li||-3.04|
|Na+ + e- =||Na||-2.71|
|Mg2+ + 2e- =||Mg||-2.38|
|Al3+ + 3e- =||Al||-1.66|
|2H2O(l) + 2e- =||H2(g) + 2OH -||-0.83|
|Cr3+ + 3e- =||Cr||-0.74|
|Fe2+ + 2e- =||Fe||-0.41|
|2H+ + e- =||H2||0.00|
|Sn4+ + 2e- =||Sn2+||+0.15|
|Cu2+ + e- =||Cu+||+0.16|
|Ag+ + e- =||Ag||+0.80|
|Br2 + 2e- =||2Br-||+1.07|
|Cl2 + 2e- =||2Cl-||+1.36|
|MnO42- + 8H+ + 5e- =||Mn2+ + 4H2O||+1.49|
In order to tell which is the strongest reducing agent, change the sign of its respective reduction potential in order to make it oxidation potential. The bigger the number the stronger a reducing agent it is.
For example if one were to list Cu, Cl-, Na and Cr in order, one would get their reduction potential, change the sign to make it oxidation potential and list them from greatest to least. One will get Na, Cr, Cu and Cl-; Na being the strongest reducing agent and Cl- being the weakest one.
A few good common reducing agents include active metals such as potassium, calcium, barium, sodium and magnesium and also, compounds that contain the H- ion, those being NaH, LiAlH4 and CaH2.
Also, some elements and compounds can be both reducing or oxidizing agents. Hydrogen gas is a reducing agent when it reacts with non-metals and an oxidizing agent when it reacts with metals.
2Li(s) + H2(g) -->2LiH(s) hydrogen acts as an oxidizing agent because it accepts an electron donation from lithium, which causes Li to be oxidized.
Half Reactions 2Li(s)0 -->2Li(s)+1 + 2e-::::: H20(g) + 2e- --> 2H-1(g)
H2(g) + F2(g) --> 2HF(g) hydrogen acts as a reducing agent because it donates its electrons to fluorine, which allows fluorine to be reduced.
Half Reactions H20(g) --> 2H+1(g) + 2e-::::: F20(g) + 2e- --> 2F-1(g)
In the above equation, the Iron (Fe) has an oxidation number of 0 before and 3+ after the reaction. For oxygen (O) the oxidation number began as 0 and decreased to 2−. These changes can be viewed as two "half-reactions" that occur concurrently:
Iron III (Fe) has been oxidized because the oxidation number increased and is the reducing agent because it gave electrons to the oxygen (O). Oxygen (O) has been reduced because the oxidation number has decreased and is the oxidizing agent because it took electrons from iron (Fe)
|H2 Hydrogen||H+, H2O|
|C||CO2 carbon dioxide|
|hydrocarbons||CO2 carbon dioxide, H2O|
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