(originally Schneider, then Schnitter) (April 20
- September 22
) was a German Protestant
reformer and humanist
. He was a follower and friend of Martin Luther
, who became his antagonist in the matter of the binding obligation of the law
Agricola was born at Eisleben
, whence he is sometimes called Magister Islebius. He studied at Wittenberg
, where he soon gained the friendship of Martin Luther
. In 1519 he accompanied Luther to the great assembly of German divines at Leipzig
, and acted as recording secretary. After teaching for some time in Wittenberg, he went to Frankfurt
in 1525 to establish the Protestant mode of worship. He had resided there only a month when he was called to Eisleben, where he remained till 1526 as teacher in the school of St Andrew, and preacher in the Nicolai church.
In 1536 he was recalled to teach in Wittenberg, and was welcomed by Luther. Almost immediately, however, a controversy, which had been begun ten years before and been temporarily silenced, broke out more violently than ever. Agricola was the first to teach the views which Luther was the first to stigmatize by the name Antinomian
, maintaining that while non-Christians were still held to the Mosaic law, Christians were entirely free from it, being under the gospel alone. After he wrote an attack on Luther shortly after Luther had given him shelter when he was fleeing persecution, Luther had nothing further to do with him.
Restoration and later life
In consequence of the bitter controversy with Luther that resulted, Agricola in 1540 left Wittenberg secretly for Berlin
, where he published a letter addressed to Frederick III, Elector of Saxony
, which was generally interpreted as a recantation of his obnoxious views. Luther, however, seems not to have so accepted it, and Agricola remained at Berlin.
Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, having taken Agricola into his favour, appointed him court preacher and general superintendent. He held both offices until his death in 1566, and his career in Brandenburg was one of great activity and influence.
Along with Julius von Pflug, bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz, and Michael Helding, titular bishop of Sidon, he prepared the Augsburg Interim of 1548, a proposed settlement under which Protestants would accept all Catholic authority, being permitted to retain the Protestant teaching on justification but otherwise compelled to accept Catholic doctrine and practice. From that time, he was an outcast among Protestant theologians. It was an irony that one of the most radical Reformers ended his life viewed as having capitulated to Catholics.
He endeavoured in vain to appease the Adiaphoristic controversy.
He died during an epidemic of plague on September 22, 1566 in Berlin.
Agricola wrote a number of theological works. He was the first to make a collection of German proverbs
which he illustrated with a commentary. The most complete edition, which contains seven hundred and fifty proverbs, is that published at Wittenberg in 1592.
In 1836, Robert Browning
used him as the subject of an early poetic solioquy, "Johannes Agricola in Meditation