Reşiţa (German: Reschitz, Hungarian: Resicabánya, Krashovani: Решица or Rešica, Czech: Rešice) is a city in western Romania and the capital of Caraş-Severin County, in the Banat region. Its 2004 population was 83,985.
Historically, the town has its origins in the 15th century under the name of Rechyoka and Rechycha. Archaeological research found traces of habitation going back to the Neolithic, Dacian and Roman eras. It was mentioned in 1673 under the name of Reszinitza, whose citizens paid taxes to Timişoara, and by the years 1690 – 1700, it was mentioned as being part of the District of Bocşa together with other towns in the Bârzava Valley. The town was referenced to in the conscription acts of 1717 under the name of Retziza. On 3 July 1771, it became an important metal-manufacturing center in the region. The foundation of the industrial Reşiţa were laid with the establishment of factories near the villages of Reşiţa Română (Reschiza Kamerală or Olah Resitza) and Reşiţa Montană (Eisenwerk Reschitza, Nemet Reschitza or Resiczbanya). Reşiţa Montană was at first inhabited by Romanians, and later, in 1776, 70 German families settled there. Between the years 1910 – 1925, Reşiţa had the status of a rural area, and in 1925, it was declared a town thanks to its development to a powerful industrial location in modern Romania. In 1968, it became a municipality.
After 1989 Reşiţa lost most of its importance and its economy faced a drawback, along with the Romanian economy. The population also suffered a decrease, dropping from 110,000 in 1989 to 86,000 in 2006. After the fall of communism, the Reşiţa Steelworks (Combinatul Siderurgic Reşiţa, CSR) were bought by an American investor who brought the factory just one step away from bankruptcy. Today the steelworks are run by a Russian company, who has projects of modernization for the CSR. Still, it is believed that CSR would never reach again the status it had in the communist era.
A locomotive museum featuring Romania's first locomotives is located in Reşiţa, in the Triaj neighborhood.
There are also important cultural points in Reşiţa that have been renewed in 2006, including the Scoala de Beton, Centrul Civic (Downtown) and Sala Polivalenta.
The Centrul Civic has been mostly renovated in 2006, but it is not yet finished, even though most of it is free of restrions. Another important point to view in Reşiţa is its famous fountain located in the Centrul Civic witch has been built in the communist era and it is one of Europe's most beautiful fountains, which can even change the water's shape in the air. Unfortunately it is not always on because it consumes a large amount of electricity. The city is considered by inhabitants as being divided into two big areas, Reşiţa de sus or oraşul vechi (old city), respectively Govândari area built after 1965. The old town is made up of 10 neighbourhoods : "Muncitoresc", "Valea Domanului", "Lunca Pomostului", "Moroasa I and II", "Driglovăţul Nou" , "Driglovăţul Vechi", "Stavila", Minda", "Başovăţ" şi "Lend"; while the newest part of the city, Govândari is divided into 4 "Microraioane". Complementary to this there are the surrounding small towns, considered neighbourhoods: Câlnic, Ţerova, Secu and Cuptoare and Moniom .
Resita features a main 4 lane road that connects the neightebourhood Stavila to the neightbourhood of Calnic. This main road passes through almost all important neighbourhoods in resita. The rest of the neightbour hoods in resita are accessible via 2 lane secondary roads or single-lane roads. Roads of Resita are usually well maintained, especially the main road, but there are occasional pot-holes on secondary roads. The road signs are usually well placed and well maintained, and traffic is usually friendly and traffic jams are a myth. Accidents are very rare and almost never lethal. Externally Resita is connected by national roads to Caransebes (Continued to Bucharest) , and respectively Timişoara. There are also 3 county roads connecting Resita to Oravita, Vama Năidaş and respectively Anina.
Resita currently has 4 supermarkets of which two Carrefour supermarkets, one Plus supermarket, and one Spar supermarket. The Shopping Center of Resita is the Nera Shopping Center located in the Centrul Civic. There are a variety of companies operating in Resita, offering almost everything a normal consumer wold need.
There are also resorts for people who prefer nightlife, the most important being the Club Gladiator and Hot Club.
Resita has long been considered as the second largest industrial center of Romania. It has a population of about 86,000 inhabitants (2006). It is an important center in manufacturing steel and vehicle manufacturing. C.S.R. (Combinatul Siderurgic Reşiţa) and U.C.M.R. (Uzina Constructoare de Maşini Reşiţa) are the factories which sustained the city's life for more than 300 years. The first factories were born in 1771, during the reign of Maria Theresa. During the XIXth century, the steel works were known as StEG. After the end of World War 1, when Banat became part of Romania, they changed their name again, this time to Uzinele şi Domeniile Reşiţa or UDR (Reşiţa Works and Domains). Only later, under the Communist regime, did the UDR split to CSR and UCMR.
The economy of Resita has faced a drawback since 1989, but now it seems it's going forward as more investors come. In communications services Resita is a modern city, with many Internet service providers, some even offering speeds of up to 100 Mbit/s and high quality telephone and cellphone services