Rank

Rank

[rangk]
Rank, Otto, 1884-1937, Austrian psychoanalyst; one of Sigmund Freud's first and most valued pupils. He early employed Freudian techniques to clarify the underlying significance of myths, producing the classic paper Der Mythus von der Geburt des Helden (1909; tr. Myth of the Birth of the Hero, 1914). Rank, in collaboration with Hanns Sachs, founded the psychoanalytic journal Imago in 1912. Rank's theoretical views, diverging from those of Freud, gave the birth trauma, rather than the Oedipus complex, the central position in the causation of psychoneurosis, claiming all neurotic anxiety to be a repetition of the physiological phenomenon of birth. As a therapist, he attempted to reduce the time required for a successful psychoanalysis to a few months. Rank emigrated to the United States a few years before his death. Among his writings are The Trauma of Birth (tr. 1929), Art and Artist (tr. 1932), Modern Education (tr. 1932), and Will Therapy (tr. 1936).

See studies by E. Menaker (1982) and E. J. Lieberman (1983).

orig. Otto Rosenfeld

(born April 22, 1884, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 31, 1939, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Austrian psychologist. A protégé of Sigmund Freud, Rank's early books, including The Artist (1907) and The Myth of the Birth of the Hero (1909), extended psychoanalytic theory to explain the significance of myths. He edited the International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1912–24). The publication of The Trauma of Birth (1924), which was seen to undermine the principles of psychoanalysis by arguing that the basis of anxiety neurosis is psychological trauma occurring during birth, led to his expulsion from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Rank settled in New York City in 1936, and his later work focused on the will as the guiding force in personality development.

Learn more about Rank, Otto with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Otto Rosenfeld

(born April 22, 1884, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 31, 1939, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Austrian psychologist. A protégé of Sigmund Freud, Rank's early books, including The Artist (1907) and The Myth of the Birth of the Hero (1909), extended psychoanalytic theory to explain the significance of myths. He edited the International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1912–24). The publication of The Trauma of Birth (1924), which was seen to undermine the principles of psychoanalysis by arguing that the basis of anxiety neurosis is psychological trauma occurring during birth, led to his expulsion from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Rank settled in New York City in 1936, and his later work focused on the will as the guiding force in personality development.

Learn more about Rank, Otto with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 14, 1895, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.—died April 14, 1978, Cambridge) British literary critic. He attended and later taught at Cambridge University. He brought a new seriousness to criticism, believing that the critic's duty is to assess works according to the author's moral position. He cofounded Scrutiny, a journal (published 1932–53) often regarded as his greatest contribution to English letters. His books include New Bearings in English Poetry (1932) and The Great Tradition (1948), in which he reassessed the English novel.

Learn more about Leavis, F(rank) R(aymond) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 24, 1925, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 27, 2008, Stamford, Conn.) U.S. writer and editor. He attended Yale University, where he was chairman of the Yale Daily News. In 1955 he founded the National Review; as editor in chief, he used the journal as a forum for his conservative views. His column “On the Right” was syndicated in 1962 and eventually appeared in more than 200 newspapers. From 1966 to 1999 he hosted Firing Line, a weekly television interview program in which he often employed his wit and debating skills against ideological opponents. His books include God and Man at Yale (1951), Rumbles Left and Right (1963), and a series of spy novels.

Learn more about Buckley, William F(rank), Jr. with a free trial on Britannica.com.


Commodore is a military rank used in many navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a navy captain, but is less than that of a rear admiral.

It is often regarded as a 1 star rank with a NATO code of OF-6, but is not always regarded as a flag rank.

It is sometimes abbreviated as Cdre, CDRE or COMO.

History

The rank of Commodore derives from the French commandeur, which was one of the highest ranks in orders of knighthood, and in military orders the title of the knight in charge of a commenda (a local part of the order's territorial possessions).

The Royal Netherlands Navy also used the rank of commandeur from the end of the 16th century for a variety of temporary positions, until it became a conventional permanent rank in 1955. The Royal Netherlands Air Force has adopted the English spelling of Commodore for an equivalent rank.

The rank of Commodore was at first a position created as a temporary title to be bestowed upon Captains who commanded squadrons of more than one vessel. In many navies, the rank of Commodore was merely viewed as a Senior Captain position, whereas other naval services bestowed upon the rank of Commodore the prestige of flag officer status - Commodore is the highest rank in the Irish Naval Service, for example, and is held by only one person. In the Royal Navy, the position was introduced to combat the cost of appointing more Admirals - a costly business with a fleet as large as the Royal Navy's at that time.

In 1899 the substantive rank of Commodore was discontinued in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, but revived during World War II. It was discontinued as a rank in these services during the postwar period, but as an appointment, the title "Commodore" was then used to identify senior U.S. Navy Captains who commanded squadrons of more than one vessel or functional air wings or air groups that were not part of a carrier air wing or air group. Concurrently, until the early 1980s, U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard Captains selected for promotion to the rank of Rear Admiral (Lower Half), would wear the same insignia as Rear Admiral (Upper Half), i.e., two stars or sleeve braid of one wide and one narrow gold stripe, even though they were actually only equivalent to one star officers. To correct this inequity, the rank of Commodore as a single star Flag Officer was reinstated by both services in the early 1980s. This immediately caused confusion with those senior U.S. Navy Captains commanding destroyer squadrons, submarine squadrons, functional air wings and air groups, etc., who held the temporary "title" of Commodore. As a result of this confusion, the services soon renamed the new one star rank as Commodore Admiral (CADM) within the first six months following the rank's reintroduction. This was considered an awkward title and the rank was renamed a few months later to its current title of Rear Admiral (Lower Half), or RDML. The "title" of Commodore continues to be used in the U.S. Navy for those senior Captains in command of organizations consisting of groups of ships or submarines organized into squadrons, air wings or air groups of aviation squadrons other than carrier air wings, special warfare (SEAL) groups, and construction battalion (SeaBee) regiments. Although not Flag Officers, modern day Commodores in the U.S. Navy will rate a blue and white command pennant that is normally flown at their headquarters facilities ashore or from ships they may be embarked aboard.

Naval rank

The following articles deal with the rank of Commodore (or its equivalent) as it is employed in various countries.


Air force ranks

Commodore, in Spanish Comodoro, is a rank in the Argentine Air Force. This rank is the equivalent of a Colonel in the Argentine Army, and a Colonel or Group Captain in other air forces of the world. The Argentine rank below Commodore is the rank of Vice-Commodore, in Spanish Vicecomodoro, equivalent to a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Argentine Army, and a Lieutenant-Colonel or Wing Commander in other air forces.

Commodore is a rank in the Royal Netherlands Air Force. It is a 1 star rank and has essentially the same rank insignia as the British Air Commodore.

Many air forces, use the rank of Air Commodore. This rank was first used by the Royal Air Force and is now used in many countries such as India, Australia, New Zealand, Greece, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Pakistan and Nigeria. It is the equivalent rank to the navy rank of "commodore", and the army ranks of brigadier and brigadier general.

The German air force used the concept of a unit Commodore, although this was a unit command appointment rather than a rank.

Merchant and boating rank

Commodore is also a title held by the senior captain within a shipping company. It is also a title held by the senior officer of many yacht clubs and boating associations.

Other uses

In the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary, the senior elected officer of the organization is the National Commodore, while there are Commodores elected for the Atlantic and Pacific regions.

Vanderbilt University's intercollegiate athletics teams are nicknamed the Commodores, a reference to Cornelius Vanderbilt's self-appointed title (he was the master of a large shipping fleet).

In the U.S. Sea Scouting program (which is part of the Boy Scouts of America), all National, Regional, Area, and Council committee chairs are titled as Commodore, while senior committee members are addressed as Vice Commodore. Ship Committee chairs do not hold this recognition.

References and notes

See also

Search another word or see rankon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature