Ramsay, Allan, 1685?-1758, Scottish poet. An Edinburgh bookseller, he opened one of the first circulating libraries in Great Britain. The Gentle Shepherd (1725), a pastoral comedy, is his most famous poetic work. He compiled several collections of old Scottish poems and songs and is considered an important figure in the revival of Scottish vernacular poetry that culminated in the work of Robert Burns. His son, Allan Ramsay, 1713-84, was a noted portrait painter. After a successful career in Edinburgh he moved to London in 1767 and became principal painter to George III.

See biography of the elder Ramsay by O. Smeaton (1896); study by B. Martin (1931).

Ramsay, Sir Bertram Home, 1883-1945, British admiral. A career naval officer who retired in 1938, he returned to the service in World War II to command British and Allied naval units in some of the most spectacular operations of the war. He directed the evacuation of Dunkirk (1940), led the Allied fleets in the invasions of Africa (1942), Sicily, and Italy, and commanded, under General Eisenhower, the naval operations in the invasion of France in 1944. He was killed in a plane crash.
Ramsay, Sir William, 1852-1916, Scottish chemist. He was professor of chemistry at University College, Bristol (1880-87), and at University College, London (1887-1912). In his early experiments he showed that the alkaloids are related to pyridine, which he synthesized (1876) from acetylene and prussic acid. He then turned to inorganic and physical chemistry. Investigating the inert gases of the atmosphere, he discovered helium; with Rayleigh he discovered argon, and with M. W. Travers, krypton, neon, and xenon. He also carried on research on radium emanation. In 1902 he was knighted. For his work on gases he received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His writings include System of Inorganic Chemistry (1891) and Essays Biographical and Chemical (1908).

See biography by M. W. Travers (1956).

MacDonald, Ramsay (James Ramsay McDonald), 1866-1937, British statesman, b. Scotland. The illegitimate son of a servant, he went as a young man to London, where he joined the Social Democratic Federation (1885) and the Fabian Society (1886). He became (1894) a member of the newly formed Independent Labour party and was instrumental in organizing the Labour Representation Committee (later the Labour party), in which he served (1900-1912) as first secretary. MacDonald was elected to Parliament in 1906 and was leader of the Labour party in the House of Commons (1911-14) until he was discredited and labeled a traitor for his pacifist stand at the outbreak of World War I. He lost his seat in Parliament in 1918 but was reelected in 1922 and again chosen to lead the Labour party. In Jan., 1924, he became prime minister and foreign secretary of the first Labour government of Great Britain. Although unemployment benefits were extended, his minority government did not enact strong socialist measures. In foreign affairs, however, MacDonald helped secure acceptance of the Dawes Plan and sponsored the Geneva Protocol (later rejected by the Conservative government), which provided for compulsory arbitration of international disputes. A trade agreement with the Soviet Union and the government's withdrawal of charges against a Communist newspaper editor led to a vote of censure that forced MacDonald to call an election in Oct., 1924. Publication of the Zinoviev Letter (see under Zinoviev, Grigori Evseyevich) helped secure Labour's defeat. In 1929, MacDonald became prime minister in the second Labour government. Again it was a minority government and could not press a socialist program, and its strictly orthodox economic measures proved ineffective against the serious depression. In 1931, when proposed cuts in unemployment benefits split the Labour cabinet, MacDonald agreed to lead a coalition government (the National government), leaning heavily on Conservative support. This action was regarded as apostasy by most of the Labour party, which however was roundly defeated in the election that followed. Never completely trusted by his new Conservative allies, MacDonald was no more than a figurehead in the National government. In 1935 he resigned the prime ministership to Stanley Baldwin and became lord president of the council. He lost his parliamentary seat in the same year but was returned in a by-election and remained in the cabinet until his death. MacDonald's writings include Parliament and Revolution (1920) and Socialism: Critical and Constructive (1924).

See biography by D. Marquand (1977); study by D. Carlton (1970).

(born Oct. 12, 1866, Lossiemouth, Moray, Scot.—died Nov. 9, 1937, at sea en route to South America) British politician, first Labour Party prime minister of Britain (1924, 1929–31, 1931–35). He joined the precursor of the Labour Party in 1894 and was its secretary from 1900 to 1911. He was a member of the House of Commons (1906–18), where he served as leader of the Labour Party (1911–14), before he was forced to resign after opposing Britain's participation in World War I. Reelected to Parliament in 1922, he led the Labour opposition. He became prime minister in 1924 with Liberal Party support, but he was forced to resign later that year when Conservatives regained a majority. In 1929 Labour won a majority and he returned as prime minister. In 1931 he offered his resignation during the Great Depression but decided instead to remain in office as head of a national coalition until 1935, when Stanley Baldwin became prime minister. MacDonald remained in the government as lord president of the council until 1937.

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