The Queenship of Mary
is a Marian feast day in the liturgical calendar
of the Roman Catholic Church
, created by Pope Pius XII
. On 11 October 1954, the Pontiff pronounced the new feast in his encyclical Ad caeli reginam
. The feast was celebrated on May 31, the last day of the Marian month. In 1969, Pope Paul VI
moved the feast day to August 22. The feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary
—celebrated on August 22 from 1944 until 1969—was moved to to the day after the Feast of the Sacred Heart
According to Catholic doctrine, Mary was assumed into heaven and is with Jesus Christ, her divine Son. Mary should be called Queen, not only because of her Divine Motherhood of Jesus Christ, her only Son, but also because God the Father has willed her to have an exceptional role in the work of the eternal salvation of humanity. The encyclical argues that as Christ, because he redeemed humankind, is its Lord and king by a special title, so the Blessed Virgin Mary is Queen, on account of the unique manner in which she assisted in the redemption of humanity by giving of her own substance, by freely offering him by her singular desire and petition for, and active interest in, human salvation.
The 1955 re-dedication of the church of Saint James the Great in Montreal with the new title Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral was in response to Pius XII's proclamation of the title.
- From the earliest ages of the Catholic Church, a Christian people, whether in time of triumph or more especially in time of crisis, has addressed prayers of petition and hymns of praise and veneration to the Queen of Heaven. And never has that hope wavered which they placed in the Mother of the Divine King, Jesus Christ; nor has that faith ever failed by which we are taught that Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, reigns with a mother's solicitude over the entire world, just as she is crowned in heavenly blessedness with the glory of a Queen.
- Mary was chosen as Mother of Christ in order that she might become a partner in the redemption of the human race; As Christ, the new Adam, must be called a King not merely because He is Son of God, but also because He is our Redeemer, so, analogously, the Most Blessed Virgin is queen not only because she is Mother of God, but also because, as the new Eve, she was associated with the new Adam.
Gallery of Paintings
Acta Apostolicae Sedis
. (AAS), Vatican City 1954, Ad caeli reginam p.625 ff