Common, coarse-grained variety of quartz that ranges in colour from nearly black through smoky brown. No distinct boundary exists between smoky and colourless quartz. Its abundance causes it to be worth considerably less than either amethyst or citrine. Heating bleaches the stone, the colour sometimes passing through yellow; these yellow pieces are often sold as citrine.
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Translucent, coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz found in pegmatites. Rose quartz is valued for its pale to rich pink colour, which is due to very small amounts of titanium. It has been carved since early times and has been faceted to provide gems of good brilliance. Its milky aspect is attributed to tiny, needlelike inclusions of rutile, which, when oriented, give the polished stone an asterism (optical phenomenon of a star-shaped figure) like that found in sapphire, but not as sharp or intense. Rose quartz occurs in Brazil, Madagascar, Sweden, Namibia, California, and Maine, among other sites.
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Second most abundant mineral (after feldspar) in the Earth's crust, present in many rocks. Quartz, which consists of silica, or silicon dioxide (SiO2), has great economic importance. Many varieties are gemstones, including amethyst, citrine, smoky quartz, and rose quartz. Sandstone, composed mainly of quartz, is an important building stone. Large amounts of quartz sand (or silica sand) are used in the manufacture of glass and ceramics and for molds in metal casting. Crushed quartz is used as an abrasive in sandpaper; silica sand is employed in sandblasting; and sandstone is used whole to make whetstones, millstones, and grindstones. Silica glass (or fused quartz) is used in optics to transmit ultraviolet light. Tubing and various vessels of fused quartz have important laboratory applications, and quartz fibres are employed in extremely sensitive weighing devices.
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Quartz (from German ) is the most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust (although feldspar is more common in the world as a whole). It is made up of a lattice of silica tetrahedra. Quartz has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale and a density of 2.65 g/cm³.
Pure quartz is colorless or white; colored varieties include rose quartz, amethyst, smoky quartz, milky quartz, and others. Quartz goes by an array of different names. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and the microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). Chalcedony is a generic term for cryptocrystalline quartz. The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque, while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline.
Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral, current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals, although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. This does not always hold true.
|Chalcedony||Any cryptocrystalline quartz, although generally only used for white or lightly colored material. Otherwise more specific names are used.|
|Agate||Multi-colored, banded chalcedony, semi-translucent to translucent|
|Onyx||Agate where the bands are straight, parallel and consistent in size.|
|Jasper||Opaque chalcedony, typically red to brown|
|Aventurine||Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer.|
|Tiger's eye||Fibrous gold to red-brown coloured quartz, exhibiting chatoyancy.|
|Rock crystal||Clear, colorless|
|Citrine||Yellow to reddish orange to brown, greenish yellow|
|Prasiolite||Mint green, transparent|
|Rose quartz||Pink, translucent, may display diasterism|
|Rutilated quartz||Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile|
|Milk quartz||White, translucent to opaque, may display diasterism|
|Smoky quartz||Brown to grey, opaque|
|Carnelian||Reddish orange chalcedony, translucent|
Not all varieties of quartz are naturally occurring. Prasiolite, an olive colored material, is produced by heat treatment; natural prasiolite has also been observed in Lower Silesia in Poland. Although citrine occurs naturally, the majority is the result of heat-treated amethyst. Carnelian is widely heat-treated to deepen its color.
Due to natural quartz being so often twinned, much of the quartz used in industry is synthesized. Large, flawless and untwinned crystals are produced in an autoclave via the hydrothermal process; emeralds are also synthesized in this fashion. While these are still commonly referred to as quartz, the correct term for this material is silicon dioxide.
The name "quartz" comes from the German "Quarz", which is of Slavic origin (Czech miners called it křemen). Other sources insist the name is from the Saxon word "Querkluftertz", meaning cross-vein ore.
Quartz is the most common material identified as the mystical substance maban in Australian Aboriginal mythology. It is found regularly in passage tomb cemeteries in Europe in a burial context, eg. Newgrange or Carrowmore in the Republic of Ireland. The Irish word for quartz is grian cloch, which means 'stone of the sun'.
Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder believed quartz to be water ice, permanently frozen after great lengths of time. (The word "crystal" comes from the Greek word for ice.) He supported this idea by saying that quartz is found near glaciers in the Alps, but not on volcanic mountains, and that large quartz crystals were fashioned into spheres to cool the hands. He also knew of the ability of quartz to split light into a spectrum. This idea persisted until at least the 1600s.
In the 17th century, Nicolas Steno's study of quartz paved the way for modern crystallography. He discovered that no matter how distorted a quartz crystal, the long prism faces always made a perfect 60 degree angle.
Charles Sawyer invented the commercial quartz crystal manufacturing process in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. This initiated the transition from mined and cut quartz for electrical appliances to manufactured quartz.
Quartz's piezoelectric properties were discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. The quartz oscillator or resonator was first developed by Walter Guyton Cady in 1921 George Washington Pierce designed and patented quartz crystal oscillators in 1923 Warren Marrison created the first quartz oscillator clock based on the work of Cady and Pierce in 1927