The pupil is the hole that is located in the center of the iris of the eye and that controls the amount of light that enters the eye. It appears black because most of the light entering the pupil is absorbed by the tissues inside the eye. In optical terms, the anatomical pupil is the eye's aperture and the iris is the aperture stop. The image of the pupil as seen from outside the eye is the entrance pupil, which does not exactly correspond to the location and size of the physical pupil because it is magnified by the cornea. On the inner edge lies a prominent structure, the collarette, marking the junction of the embryonic pupillary membrane covering the embryonic pupil.
The shape of the pupil varies between species. Common shapes are circular or slit-shaped, although more convoluted shapes can be found in aquatic species. The reasons for the variation in shapes are complex; the shape is closely related to the optical characteristics of the lens, the shape and sensitivity of the retina, and the visual requirements of the species.
Slit-shaped pupils are found in species which are active in a wide range of light levels. In strong light, the pupil constricts and is small, but still allows light to be cast over a large part of the retina.
The orientation of the slit may be related to the direction of motions the eye is required to notice most sensitively (so a vertical pupil would increase the sensitivity of the eyes of a small cat to the horizontal scurrying of mice). The narrower the pupil, the more accurate the depth perception of peripheral vision is, so narrowing it in one direction would increase depth perception in that plane. Animals like goats and sheep may have evolved horizontal pupils because better vision in the vertical plane may be beneficial in mountainous environments.
Many snakes, such as boas, pythons and vipers, have vertical, slit-shaped pupils that help them to hunt prey under a wide range of light conditions. Small cats and foxes also have slit shaped pupils while lions and wolves have round pupils even though they are in the same respective families. Some hypothesize that this is because slit pupils are more beneficial for animals that hunt small prey rather than large prey.
In humans the hyaloid artery or hyaloid canal regresses during the tenth week of development. It is no longer anatomically present in the eye as a single structure but may remain suspended in the vitreous humour as floaters.
When bright light is shone on the eye, it will automatically constrict. This is the pupillary reflex, which is an important test of brainstem function. Furthermore, the pupil will dilate if a person sees an object of interest.
The oculomotor nerve, specifically the parasympathetic part coming from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, terminates on the circular iris sphincter muscle. When this muscle contracts, it reduces the size of the pupil.
The iris is a contractile structure, consisting mainly of smooth muscle, surrounding the pupil. Light enters the eye through the pupil, and the iris regulates the amount of light by controlling the size of the pupil. The iris contains two groups of smooth muscles; a circular group called the sphincter pupillae, and a radial group called the dilator pupillae. When the sphincter pupillae contract, the iris decreases or constricts the size of the pupil. The dilator pupillae, innervated by sympathetic nerves from the superior cervical ganglion, cause the iris to dilate when they contract. These muscles are sometimes referred to as intrinsic eye muscles.
The sensory pathway (rod or cone, bipolar, ganglion) is linked with its counterpart in the other eye by a partial crossover of each eye's fibers. This renders the effect in one eye carry over to the other. If the drug pilocarpine is administered, the pupils will constrict and accommodation is increased due to the parasympathetic action on the circular muscle fibers, conversely, atropine will cause paraylsis of accommodation (cycloplegia) and dilation of the pupil. The sympathetic nerve system can dilate the pupil in two ways: by the stimulation of the sympathetic nerve in the neck, or by influx of adrenaline.
The pupil gets wider in the dark but narrower in light. When narrow, the diameter is three to four millimeter. In the dark it will be the same at first, but will approach the maximum distance for a wide pupil 4 to 5 mm. At this stage the pupils do not remain completely still, therefore may lead to oscillation, which may intensify and become known as hippus. when only one eye is stimulated, both eyes contract equally. The constriction of the pupil and near vision are closely tied. In bright light, the pupils constrict to prevent aberrations of light rays and thus attain their expected acuity; in the dark this is not necessary, so it is chiefly concerned with admitting sufficient light into the eye. The pupil dilates in extreme psychical situations (e.g., fear) or contact of a sensory nerve, such as pain.
It has been determined that every nerve supply has an inhibitor, and the eye is no exception. The sphincter muscle has a sympathetic antagonist supply, and the dilator has a parasympathetic (cholinergic) inhibitor. In pupillary constriction induced by pilocarpine, not only is the sphincter nerve supply activated but that of the dilator is inhibited. The reverse is true, so control of pupil size is controlled by differences in contraction intensity of each muscle.
Certain drugs cause constriction of the pupils, such as marijuana, alcohol and opiates. Other drugs, such as atropine, lsd, mescaline, psilocybin mushrooms, cocaine and amphetamines cause pupil dilation.
Pupils with special educational needs in basic education schools and teachers' sickness absences - a register-linkage study
May 01, 2012; Objectives We examined whether having a high percentage of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in basic education...