is the concept that a new form of antisemitism
is on the rise in the 21st century, emanating simultaneously from the left
, the right
, and fundamentalist Islam
, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism
and the State of Israel
. The term has entered common usage to refer to what some writers describe as a wave of antisemitism that escalated, particularly in Western Europe
, after the Second Intifada
in 2000, the failure of the Oslo accords
, and the September 11, 2001 attacks
The concept generally posits that much of what purports to be criticism of Israel by various individuals and world bodies is in fact tantamount to demonization, and that together with an international resurgence of attacks on Jews and Jewish symbols and an increased acceptance of antisemitic beliefs in public discourse, such demonization represents an evolution in the appearance of antisemitic beliefs.
Proponents of the concept argue that anti-Zionism, anti-Americanism, anti-globalization, third worldism, and demonization of Israel or double standards applied to its conduct may be linked to antisemitism, or constitute disguised antisemitism.
Critics of the concept argue that it conflates anti-Zionism with antisemitism, defines legitimate criticism of Israel too narrowly and demonization too broadly, trivializes the meaning of antisemitism, and exploits antisemitism in order to silence debate.
History of the concept
French philosopher Pierre-André Taguieff
has argued that the first wave of what he describes as "la nouvelle judéophobie" emerged in the Arab-Muslim world and the Soviet sphere following the 1967 Six Day War
, citing papers by Jacques Givet (1968) and historian Léon Poliakov
(1969) in which the idea of a new anti-Semitism rooted in anti-Zionism was discussed. He argues that anti-Jewish themes centered on the demonical figures of Israel and what he calls "fantasy-world Zionism": that Jews plot together, seek to conquer the world, and are imperialistic and bloodthirsty, which gave rise to the reactivation of stories about ritual murder and the poisoning of food and water supplies..
1970s: Early debates
In 1974, Arnold Forster and Benjamin Epstein of the Anti-Defamation League
published a book entitled The New anti-Semitism
, expressing concern about what they described as new manifestations of antisemitism coming from radical left, radical right, and "pro-Arab" figures in the U.S. Forster and Epstein argued that it took the form of indifference to the fears of the Jewish people, apathy in dealing with anti-Jewish bias, and an inability to understand the importance of Israel to Jewish survival.
Reviewing Forster and Epstein's work in Commentary, Earl Raab argued that a "new anti-Semitism" was indeed emerging in America, in the form of opposition to the collective rights of the Jewish people, but he criticized Forster and Epstein for conflating it with anti-Israel bias. Allan Brownfeld writes that Forster and Epstein's new definition of antisemitism trivialized the concept by turning it into "a form of political blackmail" and "a weapon with which to silence any criticism of either Israel or U.S. policy in the Middle East, while Edward S. Shapiro, in "A Time for Healing: American Jewry Since World War II," has written that "Forster and Epstein implied that the new anti-Semitism was the inability of Gentiles to love Jews and Israel enough.
1980s - present day: political convergence
Historian Robert Wistrich
addressed the issue in a 1984 lecture delivered in the home of Israeli President Chaim Herzog
, in which he argued that a "new anti-Semitic anti-Zionism" was emerging, distinguishing features of which were the equation of Zionism with Nazism
and the belief that Zionists had actively collaborated with Nazis during World War II
. He argued that such claims were prevalent in the Soviet Union, but added that similar rhetoric had been taken up by a part of the radical Left, particularly Trotskyist
groups in Western Europe and America.
Arguments for and against the concept
A new phenomenon
, former chair of history at Millersville University of Pennsylvania
, writes that new antisemitism is a new phenomenon stemming from a coalition of "leftists, vociferously opposed to the policies of Israel, and right-wing antisemites, committed to the destruction of Israel, [who] were joined by millions of Muslims
, including Arabs
, who immigrated to Europe ... and who brought with them their hatred of Israel in particular and of Jews in general." It is this new political alignment, he argues, that makes new antisemitism unique. Mark Strauss
of Foreign Policy
links it to anti-globalism
, describing it as "the medieval image of the 'Christ-killing' Jew resurrected on the editorial pages of cosmopolitan European newspapers.
The French philosopher Pierre-André Taguieff argues that antisemitism based on racism and nationalism has been replaced by a new form based on anti-racism and anti-nationalism. He identifies some of its main features as the identification of Zionism and racism; the use of material related to Holocaust denial e.g. doubts about the number of victims and allegations that there is a "Holocaust industry"; a borrowed discourse from third worldism, anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism, anti-Americanism, and anti-globalization; and the dissemination of what he calls the "myth" of the "intrinsically good Palestinian — the innocent victim par excellence."
There are no indices of measurement of the new antisemitism, according to Irwin Cotler, Professor of Law at McGill University. Cotler argues that classical antisemitism is discrimination against Jews as individuals, and that the new antisemitism, in contrast, "is anchored in discrimination against the Jews as a people—and the embodiment of that expression in Israel. In each instance the essence of anti-Semitism is the same—an assault upon whatever is the core of Jewish self-definition at any moment in time." It is hard to measure, because the indices used by governments to detect discrimination — standard of living, housing, health, and employment — are useful only in measuring discrimination against individuals. This makes it difficult to show that the concept is a valid one, he writes.
A new phenomenon, but not antisemitism
That there has been a resurgence of antisemitic attacks and attitudes is accepted by most opponents of the concept of new antisemitism. What is not accepted is that this constitutes a different kind of antisemitism.
Brian Klug, senior research fellow in philosophy at St Benet's Hall, Oxford — who gave expert testimony in February 2006 to a British parliamentary inquiry into antisemitism in the UK, and in November 2004 to the Hearing on Anti-Semitism at the German Bundestag — argues against the idea that there is a "single, unified phenomenon" that could be called "new" antisemitism. He accepts that there is reason for the Jewish community to be concerned, but argues that any increase in antisemitic incidents is attributable to classical antisemitism. Proponents of the new antisemitism concept, he writes, see an organizing principle that allows them to formulate a new concept, but it is only in terms of this concept that many of the examples cited in evidence of it count as examples in the first place. That is, the creation of the concept may be based on a circular argument or tautology. He argues that it is an unhelpful concept, because it devalues the term "antisemitism," leading to widespread cynicism about the use of it. People of goodwill who support the Palestinians resent being falsely accused of antisemitism.
Klug defines classical antisemitism as "an ingrained European fantasy about Jews as Jews," arguing that whether Jews are seen as a race, religion, or ethnicity, and whether antisemitism comes from the right or the left, the antisemite's image of the Jew is always as "a people set apart, not merely by their customs but by their collective character. They are arrogant, secretive, cunning, always looking to turn a profit. Loyal only to their own, wherever they go they form a state within a state, preying upon the societies in whose midst they dwell. Mysteriously powerful, their hidden hand controls the banks and the media. They will even drag governments into war if this suits their purposes. Such is the figure of 'the Jew,' transmitted from generation to generation."
He argues that, although it is true that the new antisemitism incorporates the idea that antisemitism is hostility to Jews as Jews, the source of the hostility has changed; therefore, to continue using the same expression for it — antisemitism — causes confusion. Today's hostility to Jews as Jews is based on the Arab-Israeli conflict, not on ancient European fantasies. Israel proclaims itself as the state of the Jewish people, and many Jews align themselves with Israel for that very reason. It is out of this alignment that the hostility to Jews as Jews arises, rather than hostility to Israelis or to Zionists. Klug agrees that it is a prejudice, because it is a generalization about individuals; nevertheless, he argues, it is "not rooted in the ideology of 'the Jew'," and is therefore a different phenomenon from antisemitism.
Norman Finkelstein argues that there has been no significant rise in antisemitism: "What does the evidence show? There has been good investigation done, serious investigation. All the evidence shows there's no — there's no evidence at all for a rise of a new anti-Semitism, whether in Europe or in North America. The evidence is zero. And, in fact, there's a new book put out by an Israel stalwart. His name is Walter Laqueur, a very prominent scholar. It's called The Changing Face of Anti-Semitism. It just came out, 2006, from Oxford University Press. He looks at the evidence, and he says no. There's some in Europe among the Muslim community, there's some anti-Semitism, but the notion that in the heart of European society or North American society there's anti-Semitism is preposterous. And in fact — or no, a significant rise in anti-Semitism is preposterous.
Opposition to Israel not necessarily antisemitism
Earl Raab, founding director of the Nathan Perlmutter Institute for Jewish Advocacy at Brandeis University
writes that "[t]here is a new surge of antisemitism in the world, and much prejudice against Israel is driven by such antisemitism," but argues that charges of antisemitism based on anti-Israel opinions generally lack credibility. He writes that "a grave educational misdirection is imbedded in formulations suggesting that if we somehow get rid of antisemitism, we will get rid of anti-Israelism. This reduces the problems of prejudice against Israel to cartoon proportions." Raab describes prejudice against Israel as a "serious breach of morality and good sense," and argues that it is often a bridge to antisemitism, but distinguishes it from antisemitism as such.
Steven Zipperstein, professor of Jewish Culture and History at Stanford University, argues that a belief in the State of Israel's responsibility for the Arab-Israeli conflict is considered "part of what a reasonably informed, progressive, decent person thinks." He argues that Jews have a tendency to see the State of Israel as a victim because they were very recently themselves "the quintessential victims."
The third wave
Historian Bernard Lewis argues that the new antisemitism represents the third, or ideological, wave of antisemitism, the first two waves being religious and racial antisemitism.
Lewis defines antisemitism as a special case of prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way different from the rest. According to Lewis, antisemitism is marked by two distinct features: Jews are judged according to a standard different from that applied to others, and they are accused of cosmic evil. He writes that what he calls the first wave of antisemitism arose with the advent of Christianity because of the Jews' rejection of Jesus as Messiah. The second wave, racial anti-Semitism, emerged in Spain when large numbers of Jews were forcibly converted, and doubts about the sincerity of the converts led to ideas about the importance of "la limpieza de sangre", purity of blood.
He associates the third wave with the Arabs, and writes that it arose only in part because of the establishment of the State of Israel. Until the 19th century, Muslims had regarded Jews with what Lewis calls "amused, tolerant superiority" — they were seen as physically weak, cowardly, and unmilitary — and although Jews living in Muslim countries were not treated as equals, they were shown a certain amount of respect. The Western form of antisemitism — what Lewis calls "the cosmic, satanic version of Jew hatred" — arrived in the Middle East in several stages, beginning with Christian missionaries in the 19th century, and continued to grow slowly into the 20th century, up to the establishment of the Third Reich. He writes that it increased because of the humiliation of the Israeli military victories of 1948 and 1967. (See 1948 Arab-Israeli War and Six Day War.)
Into this mix entered the United Nations. Lewis argues that the United Nations' handling of the 1948 refugee situation convinced the Arab world that discrimination against Jews was acceptable. When the ancient Jewish community in East Jerusalem was evicted and its monuments desecrated or destroyed, they were offered no help. Similarly, when Jewish refugees fled or were driven out of Arab countries, no help was offered, but elaborate arrangements were made for Arabs who fled or were driven out of the area that became Israel. All the Arab governments involved in the conflict announced that they would not admit Israelis of any religion into their territories, and that they would not give visas to Jews, no matter which country they were citizens of. Lewis argues that the failure of the United Nations to protest sent a clear message to the Arab world.
He writes that this third wave of antisemitism has in common with the first wave that Jews are able to be part of it. With religious antisemitism, Jews were able to distance themselves from Judaism, and Lewis writes that some even reached high rank within the church and the Inquisition. With racial antisemitism, this was not possible, but with the new, ideological, antisemitism, Jews are once again able to join the critics. The new antisemitism also allows non-Jews, he argues, to criticize or attack Jews without feeling overshadowed by the crimes of the Nazis.
Antisemitism, but not a new phenomenon
Yehuda Bauer, Professor of Holocaust Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, considers the concept "new antisemitism" to be false, since it is in fact old antisemitism that remains latent and recurs whenever it is triggered. In his view, the current trigger is the Israeli situation, and if a compromise were achieved there antisemitism would decline but not disappear.
Dina Porat, professor at Tel Aviv University says that, while in principle there is no new antisemitism, we can speak of antisemitism in a new envelope. Otherwise Porat speaks of a new and violent form of antisemitism in Western Europe starting from after the Second Intifada.
A contradictory political ploy
Norman Finkelstein argues that organizations such as the Anti-Defamation League have brought forward charges of new antisemitism at various intervals since the 1970s, "not to fight antisemitism but rather to exploit the historical suffering of Jews in order to immunize Israel against criticism". He writes that most evidence purporting to show a new antisemitism has been taken from organizations that are linked in some way to Israel, or that have "a material stake in inflating the findings of anti-Semitism," and that some antisemitic incidents reported in recent years either did not occur or were misidentified. As an example of the misuse of the term "antisemitism," he cites the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia's 2003 report, which included displays of the Palestinian flag, support for the PLO, and the comparisons between Israel and apartheid-era South Africa in its list of antisemitic activities and beliefs.
He writes that what is called the new antisemitism consists of three components: (i) "exaggeration and fabrication"; (ii) "mislabeling legitimate criticism of Israeli policy"; and (iii) "the unjustified yet predictable spillover from criticism of Israel to Jews generally." He argues that Israel's apologists have denied a causal relationship between Israeli policies and hostility toward Jews, since "if Israeli policies, and widespread Jewish support for them, evoke hostility toward Jews, it means that Israel and its Jewish supporters might themselves be causing anti-Semitism; and it might be doing so because Israel and its Jewish supporters are in the wrong".
Finkelstein asks why, given that the wars in Vietnam and Iraq contributed to anti-Americanism, and the aggression of Nazi Germany gave rise to anti-Teutonic sentiment, it surprises us that an occupation by a self-declared Jewish state should cause antipathy towards Jews. The only surprise, he argues, is that the antipathy does not run deeper, given that mainstream Jewish organizations offer uncritical support to Israel; that Israel defines itself juridically as the sovereign state of the Jewish people; and that Jews themselves sometimes argue that to distinguish between Israel and world Jewry is itself an example of antisemitism. He cites Phyllis Chesler who argues, on the one hand, that "anyone who does not distinguish between Jews and the Jewish state is an anti-Semite," but on the other that "Israel is our heart and soul ... we are family." Gabriel Schoenfeld, the editor of Commentary magazine, writes that "Iranian anti-Semitic propagandists make a point of erasing all distinctions among Israel, Zionism and the Jews," while Hillel Halkin argues that "Israel is the state of the Jews ... To defame Israel is to defame the Jews." It would seem to be antisemitic, Finkelstein concludes, "both to identify and not to identify Israel with Jews.
An inappropriate redefinition
Antony Lerman, writing in the Israeli journal Ha'aretz in September 2008, argues that the concept of a "new antisemitism" has brought about "a revolutionary change in the discourse about anti-Semitism". He writes that most contemporary discussions concerning antisemitism have become focused on issues concerning Israel and Zionism, and that the equation of anti-Zionism with antisemitism has become for many a "new orthodoxy". He adds that this redefinition has often resulted in "Jews attacking other Jews for their alleged anti-Semitic anti-Zionism". While Lerman accepts that exposing alleged Jewish antisemitism is "legitimate in principle", he adds that the growing literature in this field "exceeds all reason"; the attacks are often vitriolic, and encompass views that are not inherently anti-Zionist.
Lerman argues that this redefinition has had unfortunate repercussions. He writes that serious scholarly research into contemporary antisemitism has become "virtually non-existent", and that the subject is now most frequently studied and analyzed by "people lacking any serious expertise in the subject, whose principal aim is to excoriate Jewish critics of Israel and to promote the "anti-Zionism = anti-Semitism" equation". Lerman concludes that this redefinition has ultimately served to stifle legitimate discussion, and that it cannot create a basis on which to fight antisemitism.
Peter Beaumont, writing in The Observer, agrees that proponents of the concept of "new antisemitism" have attempted to co-opt anti-Jewish sentiment and attacks by some European Muslims as a way to silence opposition to the policies of the Israeli government. "[C]riticise Israel," he writes, "and you are an anti-Semite just as surely as if you were throwing paint at a synagogue in Paris."
The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) (superseded in 2007 by the European Fundamental Rights Agency) noted an upswing in antisemitic incidents in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and The Netherlands between July 2003 and December 2004. In September 2004, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, a part of the Council of Europe, called on its member nations to ensure that anti-racist criminal law covers antisemitism, and in 2005, the EUMC offered a definition of antisemitism to enable a standard definition to be used for data collection: "Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred towards Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed towards Jews and non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, towards Jewish community institutions and religious facilities." The paper included some examples:
- * Denying the Jewish people the right to self-determination, e.g. by claiming that the existence of a state of Israel is a racist endeavor;
- * Applying double standards by requiring of Israel a behavior not expected or demanded of any other democratic nation;
- * Using the symbols and images associated with classic anti-Semitism (e.g. claims of Jews killing Jesus or blood libel) to characterize Israel or Israelis;
- * Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis;
- * Holding Jews collectively responsible for actions of the State of Israel.
The EUMC added that criticism of Israel cannot be regarded as antisemitism so long as it is "similar to that leveled against any other country."France
In France, Interior Minister Dominique de Villepin commissioned a report on racism and antisemitism from Jean-Christophe Rufin, president of Action Against Hunger and former vice-president of Médecins Sans Frontières, in which Rufin challenges the perception that the new antisemitism in France comes exclusively from North African immigrant communities and the far right. Reporting in October 2004, Rufin writes that "[t]he new anti-Semitism appears more heterogeneous," and identifies what he calls a new and "subtle" form of anti-Semitism in "radical anti-Zionism" as expressed by far-left and anti-globalization groups, in which criticism of Jews and Israel is used as a pretext to "legitimize the armed Palestinian conflict."United Kingdom
The British All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Antisemitism in the UK published its report in September 2006. It adopted the view of racism expressed by the MacPherson report after the murder of Stephen Lawrence, namely that a racist act is defined by its victim, and that it is the Jewish community that is in the best position to determine what is antisemitic.
The report states that left-wing activists and Muslim extremists are using criticism of Israel as a "pretext" for antisemitism, and that the "most worrying discovery" is that antisemitism appears to be entering the mainstream. It argues that anti-Zionism may become antisemitic when it adopts a view of Zionism as a "global force of unlimited power and malevolence throughout history," a definition that "bears no relation to the understanding that most Jews have of the concept: that is, a movement of Jewish national liberation ..." Having re-defined Zionism, the report states, traditional antisemitic motifs of Jewish "conspiratorial power, manipulation and subversion" are often transferred from Jews onto Zionism. The report notes that this is "at the core of the 'New Antisemitism', on which so much has been written," adding that many of those who gave evidence called anti-Zionism "the lingua franca of antisemitic movements."
Lord Janner of Braunstone gave evidence regarding antisemitic remarks made to him in Parliament. After the arrest of Saddam Hussein, another peer approached him and said: "We've got rid of Saddam Hussein now. Your lot are next." When asked what she meant by "your lot," she replied: "Yes, you cannot go on killing Palestinians forever, you know." Oona King, former MP for Bethnal Green and Bow, gave evidence that many of her former constituents told her they could not vote for her because she was funded by the Israeli Secret Service.
In November 2001, in response to an Abu-Dhabi television broadcast showing Ariel Sharon
drinking blood of Palestinian children, the Israeli government
set up the "Coordinating Forum for Countering Antisemitism," headed by Deputy Foreign Minister Rabbi Michael Melchior
. According to Melchior, "in each and every generation antisemitism tries to hide its ugly face behind various disguises — and hatred of the State of Israel is its current disguise." He added that, "hate against Israel has crossed the red line, having gone from criticism to unbridled antisemitic venom, which is a precise translation of classical antisemitism whose past results are all too familiar to the entire world.
A number of commentators argue that the United Nations
has condoned anti-Semitism. Lawrence Summers
, then-president of Harvard University
, wrote that the UN's World Conference on Racism failed to condemn human rights abuses in China, Rwanda, or anywhere in the Arab world, while raising Israel's alleged "ethnic cleansing" and "crimes against humanity.
David Matas, senior counsel to B'nai Brith Canada, has written that the UN is a forum for anti-Semitism, citing the example of the Palestinian representative to the UN Human Rights Commission who claimed in 1997 that Israeli doctors had injected Palestinian children with the AIDS virus. Congressman Steve Chabot told the U.S. House of Representatives in 2005 that the commission took "several months to correct in its record a statement by the Syrian ambassador that Jews allegedly had killed non-Jewish children to make unleavened bread for Passover.
Anne Bayefsky, a Canadian legal scholar who addressed the UN about its treatment of Israel, argues that the UN hijacks the language of human rights to discriminate and demonize Jews. She writes that over one quarter of the resolutions condemning a state's human rights violations have been directed at Israel. "But there has never been a single resolution about the decades-long repression of the civil and political rights of 1.3 billion people in China, or the million female migrant workers in Saudi Arabia kept as virtual slaves, or the virulent racism which has brought 600,000 people to the brink of starvation in Zimbabwe.
In a 2008 report on antisemitism from the US Department of State to the US Congress,
Motives for criticizing Israel in the UN may stem from legitimate concerns over policy or from illegitimate prejudices. (...) However, regardless of the intent, disproportionate criticism of Israel as barbaric and unprincipled, and corresponding discriminatory measures adopted in the UN against Israel, have the effect of causing audiences to associate negative attributes with Jews in general, thus fueling anti-Semitism.
The U.S. State Department
's 2004 Report on Global Anti-Semitism
identified four sources of rising anti-Semitism, particularly in Europe:
- "Traditional anti-Jewish prejudice... This includes ultra-nationalists and others who assert that the Jewish community controls governments, the media, international business, and the financial world."
- "Strong anti-Israel sentiment that crosses the line between objective criticism of Israeli policies and anti-Semitism."
- "Anti-Jewish sentiment expressed by some in Europe's growing Muslim population, based on longstanding antipathy toward both Israel and Jews, as well as Muslim opposition to developments in Israel and the occupied territories, and more recently in Iraq."
- "Criticism of both the United States and globalization that spills over to Israel, and to Jews in general who are identified with both."
In July 2006, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights issued a Campus Anti-Semitism report that declared that "Anti-Semitic bigotry is no less morally deplorable when camouflaged as anti-Israelism or anti-Zionism. At the time, the Commission also announced that anti-Semitism is a "serious problem" on many campuses throughout the United States.
In September 2006, Yale University announced that it had established the Yale Initiative for Interdisciplinary Study of Antisemitism,, the first university-based institute in North America dedicated to the study of anti-Semitism. Charles Small, head of the institute, said in a press release that anti-Semitism has "reemerged internationally in a manner that many leading scholars and policy makers take seriously ... Increasingly, Jewish communities around the world feel under threat. It's almost like going back into the lab. I think we need to understand the current manifestation of this disease.
YIISA has presented several seminars and working papers on the topic, for instance "The Academic and Public Debate Over the Meaning of the 'New Antisemitism'"
The left and anti-Zionism
argues that the concept of new antisemitism amounts to little more than an attempt to subvert the language in the interests of the State of Israel. He writes that the campaign against "the supposed new 'anti-semitism'" in modern Europe is a "cynical ploy on the part of the Israeli Government to seal off the Zionist state from any criticism of its regular and consistent brutality against the Palestinians." The new antisemitism is, in fact, "Zionist blackmail," he argues. He argues that most pro-Palestinian, anti-Zionist groups that emerged after the 1967 war
were in fact careful to observe the distinction between anti-Zionism and antisemitism.The association of anti-Zionism with the concept of "new antisemitism" is highly controversial.
- Ali, Tariq. "Notes on Anti-Semitism, Zionism and Palestine", Counterpunch, March 4, 2004.
- Asserson, Trevor & Williams, Cassie. "The BBC and the Middle East", BBC Watch, retrieved August 20, 2006.
- Barkun, Michael. A Culture of Conspiracy, University of California Press, 2003; this edition 2006
- Bauer, Yehuda. "Problems of Contemporary Anti-Semitism", lecture to the Jewish Studies Dept of the University of California, Santa Cruz, 2003, retrieved April 22, 2006.
- Baxter, Sarah. "Wimmin at War", The Sunday Times, August 13, 2006, retrieved January 13, 2008.
- Bayefsky, Anne. One Small Step, Wall Street Journal, June 21, 2004, retrieved January 9, 2006.
- Beaumont, Peter. "The new anti-semitism?", '"The Observer, February 17, 2002, retrieved January 13, 2008.
- Berlet, Chip. "ZOG Ate My Brains", New Internationalist, October 2004.
- Berlet, Chip. "Right woos Left", Publiceye.org, December 20, 1990; revised February 22, 1994, revised again 1999.
- Booth, Jenny. "Oona King reveals 'yid' taunts during election", The Times, May 11, 2005.
- Brownfeld, Allan. "Anti-Semitism: Its Changing Meaning", Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 16, No. 3.
- Bryant, Elizabeth. "France stung by new report on anti-Semitism," United Press International, October 20, 2004.
- Chanes, Jerome. "Review Essay: What's "New" - and what's not - about the New Antisemitism?", Jewish Political Studies Review 16:1-2 (Spring 2004).
- Chesler, Phyllis The New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About It, Jossey-Bass, 2003. ISBN 0-7879-7803-5
- Conger, George. "UK MPs find leap in anti-Semitism", The Jerusalem Post, September 5, 2006.
- Cotler, Irwin. "Human Rights and the New Anti-Jewishness", FrontPageMagazine.com, February 16, 2004.
- Curtis, Polly. "Jewish NUS officials resign over anti-semitism row", The Guardian, April 12, 2005.
- Dershowitz, Alan. The Case For Israel, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, paperback 2004. ISBN 0-471-67952-6
- Doward, Jamie. Jews predict record level of hate attacks", The Guardian, August 8, 2004.
- Dickter, Adam. Fear over European kosher bans, World Jewish Review, July 2002.
- Endelman, Todd M. "Antisemitism in Western Europe Today" in Contemporary Antisemitism: Canada and the World. University of Toronto Press, 2005.
- Finkelstein, Norman. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005.
- Fischel, Jack. "The New Anti-Semitism", The Virginia Quarterly Review, Summer 2005, pp. 225-234.
- Fischel, Jack. Antisemitism resurfaces, Midstream, February 1, 2004.
- Fischel, Jack. "Conspiracy Theories as Comfort Food", The Forward, March 29, 2002.
- Forster, Arnold & Epstein, Benjamin, The New Anti-Semitism. McGraw-Hill 1974. ISBN 0-07-021615-0
- Foxman, Abraham H. Never Again? The Threat of the New Anti-Semitism. New York: HarperSanFrancisco (an imprint of Harper Collins), 2003. ISBN 0-060-54246-2 (10); ISBN 978-006-054246-7 (13).
- Goodman, Amy. "Finkelstein on DN! No New Antisemitism", interview with Norman Finkelstein, August 29, 2006.
- Harrison, Bernard. The Resurgence of Anti-Semitism: Jews, Israel, and Liberal Opinion. Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. 0742552276
- HaLevi, Ezra. "David Duke in Syria: Zionists Occupy Washington, NY and London", Arutz Sheva, November 29, 2005; see clip of David Duke's interview in Syria
- Halkin, Hillel. "The Return of Anti-Semitism," Commentary, February 2002
- Hodgson, Jessica. "Editor apologises for 'Kosher Conspiracy' furore", The Guardian, February 7, 2002.
- Ioanid, Radu. Foreword in Taguieff, Pierre André. Rising from the Muck: The New Anti-Semitism in Europe. Ivan R. Dee, 2004.
- Jaffe, Ben-Zion. "Big Jew on Campus: The Jewish obsession", Jerusalem Post Blog Central, December 11, 2005.
- Kaplan, Edward H. & Small, Charles A. "Anti-Israel sentiment predicts anti-Semitism in Europe," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol 50, No. 4, 548-561, August 2006.
- Kinsella, Warren. The New anti-Semitism, retrieved March 5, 2006.
- Klug, Brian. The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism The Nation, posted January 15, 2004; February 2, 2004 issue.
- Klug, Brian. Israeli, Antisemitism and the left, Red Pepper, November 24, 2005.
- Klug, Brian. "In search of clarity", Catalyst, March 17, 2006.
- Landes, Richard. "Michael Lerner Weighs in, Disturbingly", Augean Stables, February 5, 2007.
- Lazare, Daniel. "The Chosen People", The Nation, December 19, 2005.
- Lerman, Tony. "Reflecting the reality of Jewish diversity", The Guardian: Comment is Free, February 6, 2007, retrieved August 11, 2007.
- Lerner, Michael. There Is No New Anti-Semitism, posted February 5, 2007, retrieved February 6, 2007.
- Lewis, Bernard. "The New Anti-Semitism", The American Scholar, Volume 75 No. 1, Winter 2006, pp. 25-36. The paper is based on a lecture delivered at Brandeis University on March 24, 2004.
- Liddle, Rod. "Just how many islands does Spain want?", The Guardian, July 17, 2002.
- Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. Penguin 1994.
- Matas, David. Anti-Zionism and Anti-Semitism. Dundurn Press, Toronto, 2005. ISBN 1-55002-553-8
- Prager, Dennis & Telushkin, Joseph. Why the Jews? The Reasons for Antisemitism. Simon & Schuster, 2003.
- Michael, George. The Enemy of my Enemy: The Alarming Convergence of Militant Islam and the Extreme Right. University Press of Kansas, 2006. ISBN 0-7006-1444-3
- Moormeister, Robyn. "Holocaust survivor organizes UCSC conference on anti-semitism", Santa Cruz Sentinel, May 2, 2003.
- Morse, Jane A. "World Trade Center Tragedy Hits All Nationalities", September 14, 2001.
- Paz, Reuven. "Palestinian Holocaust Denial", Washington Institute Peace Watch, No. 255, April 21, 2000.
- Raab, Earl. "Is there a New Anti-Semitism?", Commentary, May 1974, pp. 53-54.
- Raab, Earl. "Antisemitism, anti-Israelism, anti-Americanism", Judaism, Fall 2002.
- Radler, Melissa. "Anti-Semitic riot at San Francisco State University," The Jerusalem Post, May 16, 2002.
- Reeves, Phil. "Amid the ruins, the grisly evidence of a war crime," The Independent, April 16, 2002.
- Reinach, Salomon & Simmonds, Florence. Orpheus: A General History of Religions, G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1909.
- Rosenbaum, Ron. (ed) Those Who Forget the Past: The Question of Anti-Semitism. Random House, 2004. ISBN 0-8129-7203-1
- Rubin, Daniel. (ed.) Anti-Semitism and Zionism: Selected Marxist Writings. International Publishers, 1987, p. 35.
- Rufin, Jean-Christophe. Chantier sur la lutte contre le racisms et l'antisemitisme, Ministry of the Interior, France. October 19, 2004.
- Sacks, Jonathan. "The New Antisemitism", Ha'aretz, September 6, 2002.
- Said, Edward. "A Desolation and They Called It Peace," in Rosenbaum, Ron. Those Who Forget the Past: The Question of Anti-Semitism. Random House, 2004.
- Schoenfeld, Gabriel. The Return of Anti-Semitism. Encounter Books, 2004.
- Sewell, Dennis. "A kosher conspiracy?", New Statesman, January 14 2002.
- Strauss, Mark. "Antiglobalism's Jewish Problem" in Rosenbaum, Ron (ed). Those who forget the past: The Question of Anti-Semitism, Random House 2004.
- Stillwell, Cinnamon. "SFSU's Legacy Of Intolerance", San Francisco Chronicle, December 14, 2004, retrieved January 12, 2008.
- Strauss, Mark. "Antiglobalism's Jewish Problem" in Rosenbaum, Ron (ed). Those who forget the past: The Question of Anti-Semitism, Random House 2004.
- Summers, Lawrence H. "Address at morning prayers", September 17, 2002, retrieved January 9, 2006.
- Taguieff, Pierre-André. Rising From the Muck : The New Anti-Semitism in Europe. Ivan R. Dee, 2002. ISBN 1-56663-571-3 (published in France as La nouvelle judéophobie. Editions mille et une nuits. ISBN 2-84205-650-7).
- Temko, Ned. "Critics of Israel 'fuelling hatred of British Jews'", The Observer, February 3, 2006.
- Whine, Michael. "Progress in the Struggle Against Anti-Semitism in Europe: The Berlin Declaration and the European Union Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia's Working Definition of Anti-Semitism", Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, February 1, 2006.
- Wiener, Jon. "Giving Chutzpah New Meaning", The Nation, July 11, 2005.
- Wilby, Peter. The New Statesman and anti-Semitism. The New Statesman. February 11, 2002, retrieved February 8, 2008.
- Wistrich, Robert. "Anti-zionism as an Expression of Anti-Semitism in Recent Years", lecture delivered to the Study Circle on World Jewry in the home of the President of Israel, December 10, 1984.
- Wurmbrand, Max & Roth, Cecil. The Jewish People: 4000 Years of Survival, p.403 and passim. Massadah-P. E. C. Press, 1966.
- Zipperstein, Steven J. "Historical Reflections on Contemporary Antisemitism", in Derek J. Penslar et al, ed., Contemporary Antisemitism: Canada and the World. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005.
- Zoloth, Laurie. "Fear and Loathing at San Francisco State" in Rosenbaum, Ron. Those who forget the past. Random House, 2004.
- Zuckerman, Mortimer B. "Graffiti on History's Walls", U.S. News and World Report. March 11, 2003, retrieved January 12, 2008.
- Zwartz, Barney & Morton, Adam. "An unholy alliance", The Age, September 4, 2006.
- 2004 Annual Report on the activities of the parliamentary commissioner for the rights of national and ethnic minorities, European Union, 2004.
- 2004 Community Security Trust Antisemitic Incidents Report.
- "France pulls plug on Arab network", BBC News, December 14, 2004.
- "'Anti-Semitism Shall Have No Place Among Us,' Powell Says", posted April 29, 2004. U.S. Department of State.
- "The Euston Manifesto", London, March 29, 2006.
- "American White Supremacist David Duke: Israel Makes the Nazi State Look Very Moderate", interview with David Duke on Syrian television, the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), November 25, 2005. Clip of the interview and of Duke's speech to a Syrian rally can be viewed here
- "The Architecture of Bigotry," Policy Dispatch, no. 80, Institute of the World Jewish Congress, June 2002.
- CAMERA, "Can the BBC Change?", CAMERA, July 26, 2004.
- "Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism", September 7, 2006.
- "December 8, 2003", Watch, retrieved August 27, 2006.
- "Scene from a 'peace rally'", BackSpin Weblog of Honest Reporting, December 4, 2003.
- United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, November 10, 1975, retrieved January 13, 2008.
- "The Euston Manifesto", March 29, 2006.
- "(U.S.) State Department report on Anti-Semitism: Europe and Eurasia," December 15, 2004; see Global Anti-Semitism Review Act of 2004.
- "French concern about race attacks", BBC News, October 2004.
- "MPs deliver anti-Semitism report", BBC News, September 6, 2006.
- "Anti-Semitism in the United Nations", UN Watch, February 1998, originally published December 1997, retrieved March 6, 2005.
- House Passes Chabot’s Bipartisan United Nations Reform Amendment, June 17, 2005, retrieved March 6, 2006.
- "Working definition of antisemitism", EUMC.
- "Antisemitism: Summary overview of the situation in the European Union, 2001-2005 (working paper)", European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, May 2006.
- "Yale Creates Center to Study Antisemitism", Associated Press, September 19, 2006.
- Aaronovitch, David. "The New Anti-Semitism", The Observer, June 22, 2003.
- Abram, Morris B. Anti-Semitism in the United Nations
- Arenson, David & Grynberg, Simon. Anti-Globalization and the New Anti-Semitism
- Avneri, Uri. Anti-Semitism: A Practical Manual, Gush Shalom.
- Bayefsky, Anne. "The UN and the Jews", Commentary Magazine, February 2004.
- Berger, Luciana. "Why I had to resign", The Guardian , April 15, 2005
- Bergmann, Werner & Wetzel, Julie. , Berlin Research Centre on Anti-Semitism, Berlin Technical University.
- Bourne, Jenny. "Anti-Semitism or Anti-Criticism?", Race and Class, Vol. 46, 2004.
- Burchill, Julie. "The hate that shames us", The Guardian, December 6, 2003.
- Chittenden, Maurice. "Dons' boycott raises Jewish student fear", The Sunday Times, April 17, 2005
- Chomsky, Noam. Necessary Illusions, accessed January 9, 2006.
- Cohen, Ben. "The Persistence of Anti-Semitism on the British Left" Jewish Political Studies Review 16:3-4 via the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Fall 2004.
- Cohen, Nick. "One woman's war: anti-Semitism," New Statesman, October 10, 2005.
- Cohen, Nick. "Following Mosley's East End footsteps", The Observer, April 17, 2005
- Cook, Jonathan. "The 'New Anti-Semitism' and Nuclear War", antiwar.com, September 25, 2006.
- Cooper, Abraham. SWC: "The Independent's Sharon Cartoon in Tradition of '[[Der Stürmer]' and Conjures Up 'Blood Libel' Canard"], January 30, 2003.
- Cotler, Irwin. "Identifying the New Anti-Semitism", Jewish People Policy Planning Institute, November 2002.
- Curthoys, Ned. "A new anti-Semitism: American discourse since September 11 has seen a reinvention of the eternal anti-semitism thesis applied to critics of Israel," Arena Magazine, April 1, 2004.
- Dinnerstein, Leonard. "Is There a New Anti-Semitism in the United States?" Society, 41 (January/February 2004), 53-58.
- Endelman, Todd M. "Antisemitism in Western Europe Today" in Contemporary Antisemitism: Canada and the World. University of Toronto Press, 2005.
- Evans, Harold. "The View from Ground Zero," in Rosenbaum, Ron (ed). Those who forget the past: The Question of Anti-Semitism, Random House 2004.
- Foxman, Abraham H. Blurring the Line, Ha'aretz, April 4, 2004.
- Gerstenfeld, Manfred. "Anti-Israelism and Anti-Semitism: Common Characteristics and Motifs"Jewish Political Studies Review 19:1-2 Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, March 1, 2007.
- Gerstenfeld, Manfred. "Something is rotten in the State of Europe: Anti-Semitism as a Civilizational Pathology", an interview with Robert S. Wistrich, October 1, 2004.
- Gerstenfeld, Manfred. "Major Anti-Semitic Motifs in Arab Cartoons: An Interview with Joël Kotek", Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, No. 21, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, June 1, 2004.
- Gerstenfeld, Manfred. Europe’s Crumbling Myths: The Post-Holocaust Origins of Today’s Anti-Semitism, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs/Yad Vashem/World Jewish Congress, 2003. ISBN 965-218-045-9.
- Gerstenfeld, Manfred. "The Academic Boycott Against Israel", Jewish Political Studies Review 15:3-4 (Fall 2003).
- Gerstenfeld, Manfred. "Anti-Semitic Motifs in Anti-Israelism," Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, no. 2, 1 November 2002.
- Gitlin, Todd. "The Rough Beast Returns" in Rosenbaum, Ron. Those who forget the past. Random House, 2004.
- Glazov, Jamie. "Symposium: Leftist Anti-Semitism", FrontPageMagazine.com, September 19, 2003.
- Goldenberg, Suzanne. "Israeli boycott divides academics", The Guardian, July 8, 2002.
- Gordon, Neve. "Seeing through the 'new anti-Semitism': Norman Finkelstein critiques Israel's human rights record and Alan Dershowitz's defense of it," National Catholic Reporter, October 14, 2005.
- Grant, Linda. "The hate that will not die", The Guardian, December 18, 2001.
- Greenspan, Miriam. (Nov-Dec 2003). "The New Anti-Semitism". Tikkun 18:6. p. 33.
- Gross, Tom. "Jeningrad: What the British Media Said," in Rosenbaum, Ron (ed). Those who forget the past: The Question of Anti-Semitism, Random House 2004.
- Harris, Ben. "'Progressive' anti-Semitism? S.F. meet considers phenomenon", JTA, January 23, 2006.
- Horowitz, Craig. "The Return of Anti-Semitism", New York Magazine.
- David Hirsh, writing on contemporary antisemitism on the guardian's Comment Is Free website
- Iganski, Paul & Kosmin, Barry. (eds) New European Extremism: Hating America, Israel and the Jews. Profile Books Limited, 2006. ISBN 1-86197-792-1
- Iganski, Paul & Kosmin, Barry. (eds) A New Antisemitism? Debating Judeophobia in 21st Century Britain, Profile Books Limited, 2003. ISBN 1-86197-651-8
- Jonas, George. "Pragmatic anti-Semites", National Post, October 27, 2003.
- Joffe, Josef. "Nations we love to hate: Israel, America and the New Anti-Semitism", Posen Papers in Contemporary Antisemitism, No.1, Vidal Sassoon Center for the Study of Antisemitism, 2004.
- Kaye/Kantrowitz, Melanie. "Some Notes on Anti-Semitism from a Progressive Jewish Perspective", Jewish Currents, March 2007.
- Kite, Melissa. "Labour should have fought back on immigration, says Euan Blair's girlfriend", The Telegraph, April 17, 2005.
- Klein, Naomi. "Sharon's Best Weapon", May 2, 2002.
- Klug, Brian. "The collective Jew: Israel and the new antisemitism," used as a resource by the EUMC in their report Manifestations of Antisemitism in the EU 2002-2003, Vienna, March 2004. See especially pp. 12-13, 225-241.
- Klug, Brian & Wistrich, Robert S. "Correspondence between Prof. Robert Wistrich and Brian Klug: When Is Opposition to Israel and Its Policies Anti-Semitic?", International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, retrieved September 8, 2006.
- Lewis, Bernard. "Muslim Anti-Semitism" in Rosenbaum, Ron. Those who forget the past, Random House, 2003. pp. 549-62.
- Kuruvila, Matthai Chakko. "Bay Area debate flares over 'new anti-Semitism'", San Francisco Chronicle, January 27, 2007.
- Lopez, Kathryn Jean. "Liberal & Pro-Israel, Feminist Phyllis Chesler on 'The New Anti-Semitism'", National Review Online, November 25, 2003.
- MacShane, Denis. "Anti-semitism is back", The Guardian, September 7, 2006.
- McGeal, Chris. "The 'new' anti-semitism: is Europe in grip of worst bout of hatred since the Holocaust?", The Guardian, November 25, 2003
- Minerbi, Sergio I. "Neo Anti-Semitism in Today's Italy", Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Fall 2003.
- Nirenstein, Fiamma. Terror: The New Anti-Semitism And The War Against The West, 2005. ISBN 1-57525-377-1
- Pfeifer, Karl. "Antisemitism unites left and right extremists", Scholars for Peace in the Middle East.
- Pipes, Daniel. The New Anti-Semitism
- Rosenblum, April. "If Not Together, How?"
- Rosenthal, John. "Leftist myths and leftist responsibility", Policy Review Online, retrieved August 29, 2006.
- Sacks, Jonathan. A New Antisemitism?, June 2002.
- Samuels, Shimon. Applying the Lessons of the Holocaust: from Particularism to Universalism and Back
- Sharansky, Natan. On Hating the Jews, Commentary, November 2003.
- Sharansky, Natan. The New Antisemitism, January 1, 2002.
- Smith, Lewis. "Jews criticise lecturer boycott", The Times, April 18, 2005
- Whine, Michael. "Islamist recruitment and antisemitism on British campuses" (DOC file), Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies.
- Wistrich, Robert S. Antisemitism: The Longest Hatred. Pantheon Books, 1992.
- Wistrich, Robert S. "The Old-New Anti-Semitism", The National Interest, Number 72, Summer 2003.
- Wistrich, Robert S. "European Anti-Semitism Reinvents Itself", American Jewish Committee, 2005.
- Zuckerman, Mortimer B. "Graffiti On History's Walls", US News and World Report, March 11, 2003.
- " Drawing the line: the 'new anti-Semitism' versus legitimate criticism of Israel", "Make your point", Haaretz, July 18, 2004.
- "The New Anti-Semitism in Western Europe", American Jewish Committee.
- "The New Anti-Semitism", Christian Action for Israel.
- "Audit finds anti-Semitism rising across Canada", CTV News, March 6, 2003.
- "Anti-Semitism in the Church?", BeitShalom.org
- "Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism", Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, retrieved September 7, 2006.
- Large collection of quotes by Hindu philosophers and writers against Anti-Semitism
- "The New Face of Antisemitism", Department for Jewish Zionist Education, The Jewish Agency for Israel.
- From government and inter-governmental sources
- From the Anti-Defamation League
- "Deceptive Web Site Attempts to Lure Anti-Globalization Activists to Neo-Nazi Movement", Anti-Defamation League, July 11, 2002
- Map of Attitudes Toward Jews in 12 European Countries based on a 2005 ADL Survey
- The New Anti-Semitism in Europe and The Middle East: Threat is "Potent and Very Real" ADL Leader Says in Major Address
- "ANSWER, Antiwar Rallies and Support for Terror Organizations", Anti-Defamation League, August 22, 2006.
- "Anti-Semitism on Display", Anti-Defamation League, January 28, 2003.
- From the American Jewish Committee