Series of international meetings of eminent scientists to discuss problems of nuclear weapons and world security. The first meeting was held in 1957 at the estate of Cyrus Eaton in Pugwash, Nova Scotia. The Pugwash organization was established to convene subsequent conferences to discuss arms control and disarmament; these were held in the Soviet Union, Britain, India, and the U.S., among other countries. The organization and its president and founding member, Joseph Rotblat (born 1908), received the 1995 Nobel Prize for Peace.
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The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs is an international organization that brings together scholars and public figures to work toward reducing the danger of armed conflict and to seek solutions to global security threats. It was founded in 1957 by Joseph Rotblat and Bertrand Russell in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, Canada, following the release of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto in 1955.
The first conference was held in July 1957 in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, hence the organization's name. It was organized by Joseph Rotblat, who served as secretary-general of the organization from its inception until 1973. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto became the Pugwash Conferences' founding charter.
Twenty-two scientists attended the first conference:
Cyrus Eaton, Eric Burhop, whom Eaton had requested be invited, and Vladimir Pavlichenko also were present. Many others were unable to attend, including co-founder Bertrand Russell, for health reasons.
There are more than forty national Pugwash groups, organized as independent entities and often supported or administered by national academies of science.
The International Student/Young Pugwash groups works with, but are independent from, the international Pugwash group.
As international relations thawed and, as more unofficial communication channels appeared, Pugwash's visibility decreased, but still remained important in arms-control issues of the day: European nuclear forces, chemical and biological weaponry, space weapons, conventional force reductions and restructuring, and crisis control in the Third World. Pugwash's focus also has expanded to include issues of development and the environment.
The Norwegian Nobel committee hoped that awarding the prize to Rotblat and Pugwash would
In his acceptance speech, Rotblat quoted a key phrase from the Manifesto:
Forty years of Pugwash.(includes related articles on the history of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs)
Nov 01, 1997; On August 6, five days into the annual meeting of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs in Lillehammer, Norway,...