protection

protection

[pruh-tek-shuhn]
protection, practice of regulating imports and exports with the purpose of shielding domestic industries from foreign competition. To accomplish that end, certain imports may be excluded entirely, import quotas may be established, or bounties paid on certain exports. One method is to impose duties on imports (see tariff), increasing the price of the imported article, and making it less attractive to the consumer than the cheaper, domestically produced article. In the 20th cent. Britain used a system of protection known first as imperial preference and later as Commonwealth preference, designed to promote close economic relations between Britain and former colonial dependencies. The United States, however, followed the policy of protecting "infant industries" from the beginning of its national history. Since bounties on exports are forbidden by the Constitution, the protective tariff was the chief instrument of such policy. A brief attempt was made in 1913 to lower duties, but after World War I tariff rates were raised to the highest point in U.S. history. Although American industries had grown to a position of great strength, it was still held that they needed protection from the cheaper labor and lower costs of production in many foreign countries.

To promote freer trade during the Great Depression, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt received authorization in 1934 to negotiate reciprocal trade agreements, reducing tariff rates on a far-reaching basis through the use of the most-favored-nation clause. After World War II, the United States played a leading role in the formation (1948) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and in negotiating the several rounds of multilateral tariff reductions, most recently (1986) the Uruguay round, which led to the formation of the World Trade Organization. Other important steps in the movement toward freer trade and away from protection include the formation of the European Economic Community (or Common Market; now part of European Union) in 1957 and the European Free Trade Association in 1959. In 1992, the United States, Canada, and Mexico negotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which created the world's largest trading zone.

Although the United States is no longer a high-tariff nation, it still has a number of restrictive import quotas that provide a definite limit on the quantity of a given commodity that can be imported from another nation. Japan, one of the world's major industrial nations, also has many import quotas. Such quotas, in addition to being more certain methods of protection than tariffs, can also be used to favor certain nations over others.

See W. M. Corden, Protection, Growth and Trade (1985); J. N. Bhagwati, Protectionism (1988).

Protection is a city in Comanche County, Kansas, United States. The population was 558 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Protection is located at (37.201316, -99.483403).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.9 square miles (2.5 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 558 people, 241 households, and 152 families residing in the city. The population density was 586.2 people per square mile (226.8/km²). There were 297 housing units at an average density of 312.0/sq mi (120.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.95% White, 0.18% Asian, 1.79% from other races, and 1.08% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.69% of the population.

There were 241 households out of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.9% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.67.

In the city the population was spread out with 20.1% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 19.5% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, and 29.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females there were 103.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,917, and the median income for a family was $36,705. Males had a median income of $26,071 versus $15,682 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,973. About 8.2% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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