Anil’s Ghost is the critically acclaimed fourth novel by Michael Ondaatje. It was first published in 2000 by McClelland and Stewart.
Anil’s Ghost follows the life of Anil Tissera, a native Sri Lankan who left to study in the United States on a scholarship. During her time away she has become a forensic anthropologist and returns to Sri Lanka in the midst of its merciless civil war as part of a Human Rights Investigation by the United Nations. Anil, along with archeologist Sarath Diyasena, discovers the skeleton of a recently burned victim in a government area. With the help of the mysterious Sarath, Anil sets out to identify the skeleton, nicknamed Sailor, and bring about justice for the nameless victims of the war.
The title of the novel, Anil’s Ghost
, can be a reference to various elements within the narrative.
Anil’s ghost may refer to Anil’s struggle to unify her past with her present life. She carries her past in Sri Lanka, her past affair with Cullis, and her past life in America and Europe. Anil’s sleeplessness and constant flashbacks indicate that her past haunts her.
Another meaning for Anil’s ghost could be Sailor, the skeleton that Anil and Sarath try to find. Sailor represents all of the victims of war as a single entity. It is the destruction of innocent lives that haunts Anil and drives her to find an identity for the victim and culprit.
Another meaning could be the "ghosts" of Sri Lankan atrocities that affects everyone she comes into contact with during her time there. Every character in the book has deep psychological scars from the violence.
Finally, Sarath, the novel’s martyr, may also be Anil’s ghost. He sacrificed his own safety to assure her investigation and justice for other victims of the war. At the end of the novel, Sarath’s sacrifice lives on as a memory in Anil and the other characters. As such, he lives on as a ghost, his memory always a part of Anil.
The story opens up in early March with Anil arriving in Sri Lanka after a 15 year absence abroad. Her visit comes as a result of the increasing number of deaths in Sri Lanka from all the warring sides in the 1980s' civil war. While on an expedition with archeologist Sarath, Anil notices that the bones of a certain skeleton do not seem to be 6th century like the rest which leads her to conclude that the skeleton must be a recent death. Unsure where Sarath’s political allegiance lies, Anil is skeptical of his help, but agrees to it anyway.
Along their journey to identify the skeleton, nicknamed Sailor, Anil becomes increasingly suspicious of Sarath. She begins to question his motives and sees his comments as a hint for her to censor herself since their discovery would implicate the Sri Lankan government in the death of Sailor. Later, Anil and Sarath visit his former teacher, Palipana, hoping to have him confirm their suspicions. Palipana then suggests having a reconstruction of the face done so that others might identify him. They agree to do so and head on to a small village named Galapitigama.
There Anil meets Sarath’s brother, Gamini, an emergency doctor. They discover that he is intricately involved in the country’s affairs and daily struggles to save the lives of numerous victims. Gamini helps them with a fellow Sri Lanka whose hands have been nailed at which Gamini explains to them about the different atrocities that the citizens face as a result of the civil war. Later on, Anil and Sarath meet with Ananda, whom they hope can reconstruct the face of Sailor for them. Ananda does so, and in the process attempts suicide, only to be rescued by Anil. Anil and Sarath eventually are able to identify Sailor in a small village.
As Anil prepares a report to present claiming that the skeleton was a recent death, the skeleton of Sailor disappears. Frustrated, she continues on with her presentation with another skeleton but is upset when Sarath ridicules her and claims she cannot make any claims about government involvement with the skeleton she has. Angry and betrayed, Anil’s belongings and research are seized and by the time she leaves the building she is left with nothing. Once outside, she meets Sarath, who surprises her with the body of Sailor that he has placed in a van. Sarath instructs her to leave quickly and board a ship out of the country. Relieved, Anil leaves in the hope that the evidence will be sufficient. Sarath’s actions however have severe consequences.
- Anil Tissera is a young Sri Lankan woman who has been absent from her homeland for many years. A forensic anthropologist, she returns to Sri Lanka with an international human rights organization to investigate various murders that are connected to the civil war. Anil works alongside a local official, Sarath. Together they are determined to discover the identity of Sailor, a murder victim’s skeleton. Throughout the novel, there are various references to Anil’s life in America as well as in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka she had been a prodigal swimmer but left to pursue an education in the west. During her stay in America, she became involved in a relationship with a married man, Cullis. The narrative often refers back to this doomed relationship as she tries to cope with the destruction in Sri Lanka.
- Sarath Diyasena is a local official who works with Anil to investigate the string of murders in Sri Lanka. His character often seems distant and tortured due to his personal history. His wife died and the narrative later confirms that she committed suicide. Additionally, his political affiliations are ambiguous throughout a majority of the novel and it is unclear if he is a friend or foe to Anil’s investigation. During their investigation, Sarath seeks guidance from a former teacher, Palipana. By the conclusion of the novel, Sarath can be seen as a martyr. He places his own safety in jeopardy to assure Anil’s investigation and so his loyalty to justice and morality are validated.
- Palipana is an epigraphist and a former teacher to Sarath. Palipana lives much like a hermit in what appear to be ruins near Anuradhapura, an ancient capital of Sri Lanka, with his niece. Though he is now blind he had once been Sarath’s most challenging instructor. Anil and Sarath seek guidance from him with their investigation and he instructs them to find a sculptor/ painter to recreate Sailor’s face.
- Ananda was once a sculptor and painter who partook in a traditional ceremony of painting eyes on statues to give them life. However he is now a drunk, due to the disappearance of his wife, Sirissa, amidst the other atrocities of the war. He is hired by Anil and Sarath to recreate Sailor’s face. Ananda often clashes with Anil but helps her nonetheless to give the anonymous victim a face and identity. When Ananda finally completes the recreation of the face he gives it a peaceful face because that is the peace he wishes for his disappeared wife. Shortly after the face’s completion, he slashes his throat in a suicidal attempt, only to be rescued by Anil’s and Sarath’s efforts.
- Gamini, also know as "The Mouse", is Sarath’s younger brother. He is an efficient doctor, who since a young age has been living in Sarath’s shadow. He helps Anil and Sarath care for a man named Gunesena who they found brutally wounded on a road. Gamini had been in love with Sarath’s wife and attended to her when she was rushed to the hospital during her suicide. He was there with her when she died. After being left by his own wife he spends the vast majority of his time in the Emergency Services department of the hospital even sleeping there and he is also addicted to speed.
Structure and strategies
follows a unique structure in which the novel is divided into eight sections: "Sarath", "Grove of Ascetics", "A Brother", "Ananda", "The Mouse", "Between Heartbeats", "The Life Wheel", and "Distance". Each section corresponds to a narrative that deals primarily with a specific subject or character as denoted by the section’s title. For example, the section titled "The Mouse" focuses on Gamini. Additionally, most of the sections are introduced by an italicized personal anecdote about one of the characters related or unrelated to the section. Characters or events are introduced although the actual novel’s narrative will not discuss them until later sections. Events from the past are usually unaddressed by the novel and are described within these anecdotes. Most of the anecdotes are written in the first person tense. This creates a sense of urgency for the individual experiences depicted in the anecdotes that lies in contrast to the rest of the novel. The sense of urgency expressed in the anecdotes mirrors the urgency of individuals involved in the war who remain voiceless victims of war crimes. They all have individual stories of their own related to the war that remain untold.
Absence of dates and numbers
It is important to note the absence of dates or numbers throughout the novel. There are no numbers to introduce chapters. Instead of numbering the sections, only the section titles are provided. The elimination of chapter numbers and the use of section titles in addition to the lack of concrete dates emphasize the anonymity of wartime victims as well as the ambiguity of the war in Sri Lanka. In the Sri Lankan not only victims remained unidentified, but the enemy or assailant also remained an unknown similar to the lack of numerical information that is presented in the book. By omitting factual information this novel may also reach a wider audience making it more relatable without specifics and conveying the message that this type of war can occur anywhere so long as the details and individuals are neglected.
An exception to this practice is the inclusion of a list of the disappeared victims as an italicized introduction to a section. The list contains names, times, dates, and place of disappearance for numerous victims. That technique serves as foreshadowing for the future identification of sailor and is also parallel to the awareness about the Sri Lankan Civil War being raised by the text.
Sailor as a symbol
One of the important symbols
in the novel is the skeleton that Anil and Sarath try to identify, Sailor. Sailor’s skeleton is the only real evidence that Anil has that would implicate the government in the murder. Sailor serves as a symbol for all of the nameless victims of the civil war. Like the countless victims, Sailor has been burned beyond recognition and his identity has been lost. He has no name or identity like the victims of the civil war whose remains are often burned beyond recognition. His remains serve as the only clue that Anil and Sarath have to bring justice to the victims. Anil and Sarath’s fight to identify Sailor is a fight to bring a voice to all of the nameless victims of the war.
Another symbol is Ananda’s reconstructed head of Sailor. Ananda sculpts Sailor’s head into a peaceful expression, symbolic of the peace that Ananda wishes for his wife and for the rest of his country. The juxtaposition between the tranquil looking head and its decapitated state is also symbolic of the chaos and death that surrounds Sri Lanka. At once Ananda wishes for peace, and yet no matter how much he tries, that peace is artificial. The reconstructed head at the same time can be seen as the naming of victims.
"There was a serenity in the face she did not see too often these days. There was no tension. A face comfortable with itself."
Finally, Anil and Sarath are able with Ananda’s help, to bring a voice to the victim.
"this head was not just how someone possibly looked, it was a specific person. It revealed a distinct personality, as real as the head of Sarath."
Religious statues as symbol
Religious statues in Anil’s Ghost
are representative of the Sri Lankan people’s struggle during the war. Palipana mentions the ceremony of painting eyes onto images of the Buddha
. According to tradition, the painting of the eyes in an intricate ceremony was the last touch to the creation of the statue,
Similarly, so long as Sri Lankans and westerners alike do not open their eyes and acknowledge the war and take a stand against the violations of human rights there will be no progress. There will be nothing. No name for victims, no identification of the enemy. The destruction will continue and human existence will be hindered.
Reality vs. Desire
is critical of the perceptions of reality and desire experienced by the characters within the text. With the recreation of the head, Ananda gives in to his own desire and gives the face a peaceful expression because it is his wish or desire that his disappeared wife enjoy that type of peace as well. In reality, however, the skeleton was probably severely injured and suffered massive disfiguration as would have been the common practice,
"It was the face they went for…their hideous skills sniff out vanity"
By creating his desire instead of reality, he essentially hinders the investigation by creating a face that doesn’t actually exist. Anil also has a false sense of reality and desire. Her relationship with Cullis expresses a longing for a passionate romance and that is what she pretends to have and desires to keep. Eventually, however, reality seeps in and she comes to the realization that her relationship with him is in fact dysfunctional considering that he is a married man.
Balance between East and West
Anil tries to balance both her life in Sri Lanka and her life in America and Europe. Her return to her homeland for the first time since she was eighteen is a major event. Anil struggles to come to terms with her reputation as a swimmer from her youth that continues to be the principal way in which she is viewed by Sri Lankans. After living in America and Europe she is westernized and knows little of her native language. However in Sri Lanka, the people do not view her as a young professional, rather the professional swimmer she was before she left Sri Lanka.
War and its effects
The novel places a major focus on war and its effects on individuals, families, and entire societies. The role that people play in the novel is a direct effect of the impact of war on their lives. Sarath, for example continues to be a government official, he seemingly ignores the role of the government in an attempt to avoid further chaos. Gamini essentially barricades himself in his work spending every waking moment in the Emergency Services department. Anil is determined to find truth in the war. Families have been torn apart because of the kidnappings or simply because of the stress of war that is too much of a burden. Some cannot handle the atrocities and instead opt for an easier alternative, suicide. Others, like Palipana, live secluded lives altogether alienating themselves from society. Entire societies choose to remain blind and deaf to war, merely hoping for peace.
The nature of truth is also explored through comparision of the Western liberating qualities of truth embodied by Anil's investigation, and the Easten dangers of truth, "The truth was like a flame against a sleeping lake of petrol
". The physical dangers presented to those seeking the truth and the inneffectiveness of organisations such as the United Nations in Sri Lanka continues this idea. Gamini rejects the truth in warfare and politics, seeing only the human cost and finding solace in the maternal bond that "brings a timelessness to brief lives
". Sarath gives his life to give hope to the cause, "Would give his life for the truth, if it were of any use"
Setting and historical context
Although often considered a Canadian
writer, Ondaatje travels back to his homeland in Sri Lanka for the setting of Anil’s Ghost
. Set during the turbulent period in Sri Lanka from the mid 1980s to early 1990s, the characters in Anil’s Ghost
face the everyday struggles of living in a warring nation. During this time period, Sri Lanka is divided among three main warring sides with two ethnic groups and the government in a civil war. During this time, illegal and legal government squads were sent out to capture the separatist and insurgents. Numerous deaths occurred during the civil war, and the characters in Anil’s Ghost
fight to bring justice and recognition to the endless victims.
In the narrative Anil travels throughout Sri Lanka, her former country trying to identify Sailor’s skeleton and in doing so she implicates the government in the murders of innocent people.
Anil returns to her homeland Sri Lanka as part of a Human Rights
group presumably sent by the U.N. Her investigation leads to various questions as to the nature of human rights and the violation of them on behalf of the government.
There is a description of Anil’s previous travels that had taken place in Latin America where she encountered a different kind of anthropology. Latin America’s war-torn state is often contrasted with Sri Lanka with Latin America having a clear and definite enemy while Sri Lanka does not.
Throughout the novel Anil sets about to identify Sailor through the use of forensic pathology while Sarath used archaeology. The novel makes various references to the practice and techniques used to identify Sailor.
Hundred Years War
Anil compares Sri Lanka’s state of war to the Hundred Years War
on pages 42-43: "It was a Hundred Years’ War with modern weaponry, and backers on the sidelines in safe countries, a war sponsored by gun- and drug-runners"
The reference here describes the state of chaos in Sri Lanka as never ending.
is a recipient of the Governor General's Award for English language fiction
, the Giller Prize
and the Kiriyama Pacific Rim Book Prize.