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pronghorn-antelope

Antelope

[an-tl-ohp]

Antelope are ruminant hoofed mammals of the family Bovidae in the order of even-toed ungulates. These animals are spread relatively evenly throughout the various subfamilies of Bovidae and many are more closely related to cows or goats than to each other. There are many species of antelope, ranging in size from the tiny Royal Antelope to the ox-like Elands.

Male antelope are noted for their horns, which are permanent, unlike the annually-shed antlers of deer, and which often take on extravagant curved shapes such as arcs and helices. The midrange antelope, such as gazelles, impala, and blackbuck antelope, typically have a light and elegant frame, slender and graceful limbs, small cloven hoofs, and a short tail. Small antelope and large antelope can both be quite variable in form, but tend to have proportionally shorter legs and thicker builds than the mid-sized antelope.

Antelope exhibit different defensive behaviors based on their size, habitat, and number. Small solitary antelope tend to live in dense forested areas, and defend themselves by hiding. Duikers get their name from this ability to dive into the vegetation. Gazelle-sized antelope run and leap, and some species exhibit the unique behavior of pronking or stotting. Large antelope congregate in larger herds and can depend on running or group defense.

Antelope are found in a wide range of habitats, typically woodland, forest, savannahs, grassland plains, and marshes. Several species are adapted to mountains and rocky outcrops, a few to deserts (both hot and cold), and a couple are semi-aquatic and live in swamps.

Etymology

The English word "antelope" first appears in 1714 and is derived from the Old French antelop, itself derived from Medieval Latin ant(h)alopus, which in turn comes from the Byzantine Greek word anthólops, first attested in Eustathius of Antioch (c.336), according to whom it was a fabulous animal "haunting the banks of the Euphrates, very savage, hard to catch and having long saw-like horns capable of cutting down trees". It perhaps derives from Greek anthos (flower) and ops (eye), perhaps meaning "beautiful eye" or alluding to the animals long eyelashes. This may be a later folk etymology. The word talopus and calopus, from Latin, came to be used in heraldry. In 1607 it was first used for living, cervine animal.

Species and distribution

Antelopes occur naturally in Eurasia and Africa. There are about 90 species, most of which are native to Africa, where the largest herds are also to be found, in about 30 genera. About 15 species are endangered.

Antelope are typically divided into "tribes", or subfamilies under the family Bovidae.

Blackbuck antelope and Gemsbok have been imported into the United States, primarily for the purpose of "exotic game hunts", common in Texas. While blackbuck antelope and other species have established wild populations in parts of Texas, they are not native to the United States.

There are no true antelope native to the Americas. The Pronghorn "Antelope" of the Great Plains belongs to family Antilocapridae, not Bovidae. They can be distinguished by the horns, which are branched and shed. True antelope have horns which are unbranched and are never shed.

Most familiar species of antelope are located in Africa, but some exist in Asia as well. The Arabian peninsula is home to the Arabian Oryx and Dorcas gazelle, while India and Southeast Asia have the Four-horned Antelope, Tibetan antelope, Saiga antelope, Nilgai, Chinkara, and Blackbuck.

Antelope are not a cladistic or taxonomically defined group. The term is used loosely to describe all members of the family Bovidae which do not fall under the category of sheep, cattle, or goat. Usually all species of the Alcelaphinae, Antilopinae, Hippotraginae, Reduncinae, Cephalophinae, many Bovinae and the Impala are called antelopes.

Classification

Physical characteristics

The characteristics of bovids in general are: long legs; even number of hoofed toes (as per all even-toed ungulates); in most species the males are horned, and in some species the females are also; most have horizontally oriented pupils; they ruminate. In all species, the males display horns (typically two, but sometimes four). Horns are not shed and are not made of bone, which distinguishes them from antlers.

These basic characteristics, however, mask huge differences in appearance between antelopes, cattle, goats and sheep, and among the antelopes themselves. For example, a male Common Eland can measure 178 cm at the shoulder and weigh almost 950 kg, whereas an adult Royal Antelope may stand only 24 cm at the shoulder and weigh a mere 1.5 kg.

Not surprisingly for animals with long slender yet powerful legs, many antelopes have long strides and can run fast. Some (e.g. Klipspringer) are also adapted to climbing in rock kopjes. Both Dibatags and Gerenuks habitually stand on their two hind legs to reach acacia and other tree foliage. Different antelope have different body types which can affect movement. Duikers are short, bush dwelling antelope that can pick through dense foliage and dive into the shadows rapidly. Gazelles and Springbok are known for their speed and leaping abilities. Even larger antelope, such as Nilgai, Elands, and Kudus, are capable of jumping 8 feet or greater, although their running speed is restricted by their greater mass.

Antelopes have a wide variety of coverings, through most have a dense coat of short fur. In most species, the coat (pelage) is some variation of a brown colour (or several shades of brown); often with white or pale under-bodies. Exceptions include the zebra-marked Zebra Duiker, the grey, black and white Jentink's Duiker and the Black Lechwe. Most of the "spiral-horned" antelopes have pale vertical stripes on their backs. Many desert and sub-desert species are particularly pale, some almost silvery or whitish (e.g. Arabian Oryx); the Beisa and Southern Oryxes have gray and black pelage with vivid black-and-white faces. Common features of various gazelles are a white rump, which flashes a warning to others when they run from danger, and a dark stripe mid-body (the latter feature is also shared by the Springbok and Beira). The Springbok also has a pouch of white brushlike hairs running along its back, which opens up when the animal senses danger, causing the dorsal hairs to stand on end.

Antelopes are ruminants, and thus have well-developed molar teeth, which grind cud (food balls stored in the stomach) into a pulp for further digestion. They have no upper incisors, but rather a hard upper gum pad, against which their lower incisors bite to tear grass stems and leaves.

Like many other herbivores, antelopes rely on keen senses to avoid predators. Their eyes are placed on the sides of their heads, giving them a broad radius of vision with minimal binocular vision. The fact that most species have their pupils elongated horizontally also helps in this respect. Acute senses of smell and hearing, give antelope the ability to perceive danger at night out in the open (when predators are often on the prowl). These same senses play an important role in contact between individuals of the same species: markings on head, ears, legs and rumps are used in such communication—many species "flash" such markings, as well as their tails; vocal communications include loud barks, whistles, "moos" and trumpeting; many species also use scent marking to define their territories or simply to maintain contact with their relatives and neighbours.

Horns

Many antelope are sexually dimorphic. In most species, both sexes have horns, but those of males tend to be larger. There is a tendency for males to be larger than the females; however, exceptions in which the females tend to be heavier than the males include the Bush Duiker, Dwarf Antelope, Cape Grysbok and Oribi, all rather small species. A number of species have hornless females (e.g. Sitatunga, Red Lechwe, and Suni). In some species, the males and females have different coloured pelage (e.g. Blackbuck and Nyala).

Size and shape of horns varies immensely. Those of the duikers and dwarf antelopes tend to be simple "spikes", but differ in the angle to the head from backward curved and backward pointing (e.g. Yellow-backed Duiker) to straight and upright (e.g. Steenbok). Other groups have twisted (e.g. Common Eland), spiral (e.g. Greater Kudu), "recurved" (e.g. the reedbucks), lyrate (e.g. Impala), or long, curved (e.g. the oryxes) horns.

Horns are efficient weapons and tend to be better developed in those species where males genuinely fight over females—horns are clashed in combat. Unlike, say, the African Buffalo, it is much more common for males to use their horns against each other than against another species. This reflects the fact that, though thought of by most laypeople as herd animals, antelopes are territorial in the breeding season when the males spend most of their time fighting for females to mate with. The boss of the horns is typically arranged in such a way that two antelope striking at each other's horns cannot crack each other's skulls, making a fight via horn more ritualized than dangerous. Many species have ridges in their horns for at least 2/3 the length of their horns.

It is difficult to determine how long antelope live in the wild. With the preference of predators towards old and infirm individuals who can no longer sustain peak speeds, few wild prey-animals live as long as their biological potential. In captivity, wildebeest have lived beyond 20 years old, and Impalas have reached their late teens. In the wild, few individuals of prey species live to old age, as the old and weak fall easier prey to their predators; antelopes are no exception to this rule.

Behavior

Antelopes (like other herbivores) need to be able to react quickly in the presence of a predator—thus, they tend to be fast runners. They are agile and have good endurance - these are advantages when pursued by sprint-dependent predators like cheetah, which are the fastest of land animals but tire quickly.

Because antelopes react much more quickly than sheep or cattle when pursued by a predator, it is not easy to keep them in captivity as when fenced they can immediately try to escape, sometimes killing themselves in the process. Although antelopes have a diet and rapid growth rate highly suitable for domestication, this tendency to panic and their non-hierarchical social structure explains why not a single one of ninety or so species of antelope has been domesticated.

Different species differ in their behaviour in the presence of predators, and these differences are often associated with habitat. For example, the Steenbok of open woodland will lie low until the last minute and then bound away. Plains-living species, such as gazelles, do not have this choice and must flee at speed when a predator approaches. Reaction distances vary with predator species and predator behaviour. For example, gazelles may not flee from a lion until it is closer than 200 m (650 ft)—lions hunt as a pride or by surprise, usually by stalking, one that can be seen clearly is unlikely to attack. However, sprint-dependent cheetahs will cause gazelles to flee at a range of over 800 m (0.5 mile).

Species of forest, woodland or bush tend to be sedentary, but many of the plains species undertake huge migrations. These migrations enable grass-eating species to follow the rains and therefore their food supply. The gnus and gazelles of East Africa perform some of the most impressive mass migratory circuits of all mammals.

Hybrid Antelope

A wide variety of antelope hybrids have been recorded in zoos, game parks, and wildlife ranches. This is due to either a lack of more appropriate mates in enclosures shared with other species or a misidentification of species. The ease of hybridization shows how closely related some antelope species are. It is probable that some so-called species are actually variant populations of the same species and are prevented from hybridization in the wild by behavioral or geographical differences.

Most hybrids occur between species within the same genus. All reported examples occur within the same sub-family. As with most mammal hybrids, the less closely related the parents, the more likely that the offspring will be sterile.

Cultural aspects

The antelope's horn is prized for medicinal and magical powers in many places. The horn of the male saiga in Eastern practice is ground as an aphrodisiac, for which it has been hunted nearly to extinction. In the Congo, it is thought to confine spirits. Christian iconography sometimes uses the antelope's two horns as a symbol of the two spiritual weapons that Christians possess: the Old Testament and the New Testament. Their ability to run swiftly has also led to their association with the wind, such as in the Rig Veda, as the steeds of the Maruts and the wind god Vayu.

See also

References

External links

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