programmed instruction

programmed instruction

programmed instruction, method of presenting new subject matter to students in a graded sequence of controlled steps. Students work through the programmed material by themselves at their own speed and after each step test their comprehension by answering an examination question or filling in a diagram. They are then immediately shown the correct answer or given additional information. Computers and other types of teaching machines are often used to present the material, although books may also be used. Computer-assisted instruction, which both tests students' abilities and marks their progress, may supplement classroom activity or help students to develop ideas and skills independently.

The first teaching machine was invented (1934) by Sydney L. Pressey, but it was not until the 1950s that practical methods of programming were developed. Programmed instruction was reintroduced (1954) by B. F. Skinner of Harvard, and much of the system is based on his theory of the nature of learning. As programming technology developed, so did the range of teaching machines and other programmed instruction materials. Programs have been devised for the teaching of spelling, reading, arithmetic, foreign languages, physics, psychology, and a number of other subjects. Some programs are linear in concept, allowing advancement only in a particular order as the correct answer is given. Others are branching, giving additional information at the appropriate level whether a correct or incorrect answer is given.

Although there has been considerable controversy regarding the merits of programmed instruction as the sole method of teaching, many educators agree that it can contribute to more efficient classroom procedure and supplement conventional teaching methods. Teaching machines enable students to work individually, calling for active participation of the learner. In industry and the armed services, programmed instruction is often used to train personnel.

See P. Callender, Programmed Learning (1969); L. Thomas, Self-Organized Learning (1985).

Programmed instruction is the name of the technology invented by the behaviorist B.F. Skinner to automate teaching. It was based on his theory of Verbal Behavior as a means to accelerate conventional educational learning.

Programmed Instruction

It consists of self-teaching with the aid of a textbook or teaching machine that presents material structured in a logical sequence. Programmed instruction allows students to answer questions about a unit of study at their own rate, checking their own answers and advancing only after answering correctly. After each step, they are presented with a question to test their comprehension, then are immediately shown the correct answer or given additional information.

Programmed Learning

This idea was later adapted by Robert M. Gagné, who invented programmed learning for use in teaching in schools. The difference between programmed instruction (PI) and programmed learning (PL) is that PI is intended to modify behavior, whereas PL is used for teaching facts and skills.

Personalized System of Instruction

Personalized System of Instruction or (PSI), developed by Fred S. Keller, was another idea for how to incorporate programmed learning into the classroom.

Errorless Discrimination

Programmed instruction is through early efforts to implement Skinner's basic research findings on learning at Harvard that caused errorless discrimination techniques to be developed. Programmed instruction had some early success in aphasia rehabilation .

Programmed instruction today

While not as popular, programmed instruction continues to be used today. Recently, the application of programmed instruction principles was applied to training in computer programs and combined with Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy to teach college students . Some have argued that there is a resurgence of research on programmed instruction due to use of computers and the internet,

External links


Search another word or see programmed instructionon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2015, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature