production

production

[pruh-duhk-shuhn]
production, in economics, all those activities that have to do with the creation of commodities, by imparting to raw materials utility, added value, or the ability to satisfy human wants. The farmer who grows wheat, the miller who grinds the wheat into flour, and the baker who transforms flour into bread are examples of producers who, each in his own way, impart utility to a natural or partially processed material. Production was the major thrust of industry until at least the beginning of the 20th cent., when sales and marketing began to be considered equally important in the transference of commodities from producers to consumers. Today, the prevailing mode of production is called mass production, with cottage industry accounting for only a minor portion of the market in most areas of the world.

Many historians place the beginnings of mass production around 1800, with Eli Whitney's firearms factory approximating the labor process of modern industrial production. The mass production method, generally involving the piecing together of standardized, interchangeable parts by a number of workers, reached its apex in the automobile manufacturing of the early 20th cent. Increasing automation, with attendant increases in the division of labor, allowed manufacturers to hire unskilled or semiskilled labor, which would repeatedly perform small tasks in the ultimate production of a commodity. Hence, mass production often took the form of an assembly line, in which a continuous flow of products moves steadily forward toward completion.

For most kinds of production in modern society, large amounts of capital in the form of machinery are required. Equally essential are land and its natural resources, from which the raw materials are obtained, and labor, which, with the aid of capital, extracts and transforms the raw materials. To these three primary factors of production is sometimes added a fourth: the entrepreneur who organizes the forces of production and assumes the risks. Since under capitalism production is for a market, an important function of the entrepreneur is to anticipate as accurately as possible the economic demands for goods and to produce the kind and quantity of goods that will meet that demand. In order to meet the great expenses of mass production, particularly the capital necessary in most industries, groups of speculators often take on the risks of production, and the individual entrepreneur has become less significant.

Another late 20th-century trend has been toward greater computerization of the production process; increasingly, computers are not only being integrated into the machinery of production but are replacing much of the human labor as well. Computerization has made assembly lines faster and more accurate and has given them more flexibility. Through computerized instructions, the design and manufacture of many mass-produced products can easily be modified to suit the needs of the individual customer.

or operations management

Planning, implementation, and control of industrial production processes to ensure smooth and efficient operation. Production management techniques are used in both manufacturing and service industries. Production management responsibilities include the traditional “five M's”: men and women, machines, methods, materials, and money. Managers are expected to maintain an efficient production process with a workforce that can readily adapt to new equipment and schedules. They may use industrial engineering methods, such as time-and-motion studies, to design efficient work methods. They are responsible for managing both physical (raw) materials and information materials (paperwork or electronic documentation). Of their duties involving money, inventory control is the most important. This involves tracking all component parts, work in process, finished goods, packaging materials, and general supplies. The production cycle requires that sales, financial, engineering, and planning departments exchange information—such as sales forecasts, inventory levels, and budgets—until detailed production orders are dispatched by a production-control division. Managers must also monitor operations to ensure that planned output levels, cost levels, and quality objectives are met. Seealso productivity.

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Industrial arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers for continuous flow of workpieces in mass-production operations. An assembly line is designed by determining the sequences of operations for manufacture of each component as well as the final product. Each movement of material is made as simple and short as possible, with no cross flow or backtracking. Work assignments, numbers of machines, and production rates are programmed so that all operations performed along the line are compatible. Automated assembly lines (see automation) consist entirely of machines run by other machines and are used in such continuous-process industries as petroleum refining and chemical manufacture and in many modern automobile-engine plants. Seealso Henry Ford, interchangeable parts, Taylorism.

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Equation that expresses the relationship between the quantities of productive factors (such as labour and capital) used and the amount of product obtained. It states the amount of product that can be obtained from every combination of factors, assuming that the most efficient available methods of production are used. The production function can thus measure the marginal productivity of a particular factor of production and determine the cheapest combination of productive factors that can be used to produce a given output.

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Formation of an electron and a positron from high-energy electromagnetic radiation traveling through matter, usually in the vicinity of an atomic nucleus. It is a direct conversion of radiant energy into matter in accordance with the equation math.E = math.mmath.c2, where math.E is the amount of energy, math.m is the mass, and math.c is the speed of light. It is one of the principal ways in which high-energy gamma rays are absorbed in matter. The positrons quickly disappear by being reconverted into photons in the process of annihilation with other electrons. Pair production may sometimes refer to the formation of other particle/antiparticle pairs as well.

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Application of the principles of specialization, division of labour, and standardization of parts to the manufacturing of goods on a large scale. Modern mass-production methods have led to such improvements in the cost, quality, quantity, and variety of goods available that the largest global population in history is now sustained at the highest general standard of living ever. The requirements for mass production of a particular product include the existence of a market large enough to justify a large investment; a product design that can use standardized parts (see interchangeable parts) and processes; a physical layout that minimizes materials handling; division of labour into simple, short, repetitive steps (see time-and-motion study); continuous flow of work; and tools designed specifically for the tasks to be performed. Seealso assembly line.

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Post-production occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, videos, audio recordings, photography and digital art. It is the general term for all stages of production occurring after the actual end of shooting and/or recording the completed work.

Post-production is in fact many different processes grouped under one name. These typically include:

Typically, the post-production phase of creating a film takes longer than the actual shooting of the film, and can take several months to complete.

Other film production stages include (very broadly) - writing the screenplay, script development (rewriting), financing, pre-production, production and film distribution / marketing.

See also

Major post-production companies with articles on Wikipedia include:

External links


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