See J. W. Garner, Prize Law during the World War (1927); C. J. Colombos, Treatise on the Law of Prize (3d ed. 1949).
(1863) Legal dispute in which the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Pres. Abraham Lincoln's seizure of ships (prizes). In April 1861, three months before Congress declared a state of war, Lincoln authorized a blockade of Confederate ports. In that three-month period, several merchant ships ran the blockade and were captured by the Union navy. The legality of the seizures was challenged in court; on appeal, the Supreme Court ruled that the president had acted legally to resist insurrection, sanctioning presidential use of emergency powers.
Learn more about prize cases with a free trial on Britannica.com.
World's most prestigious honour in the field of architecture. Established through the philanthropic efforts of the Pritzkers, a prominent Chicago business family, the prize, first awarded in 1979, bestows an annual award of $100,000 on an architect whose built contributions to the field and to society are judged worthiest. The international jury has included architects, artists, historians, academicians, critics, and business executives.
Learn more about Pritzker Architecture Prize with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Any of the prizes awarded annually by four institutions (three Swedish and one Norwegian) from a fund established under the will of Alfred B. Nobel. The will specified that awards should be given “to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.” Since 1901, prizes have been awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace; since 1969, a sixth prize, established by the Bank of Sweden, has been awarded in economic sciences. The Nobel Prizes are regarded as the most prestigious prizes in the world.
Learn more about Nobel Prize with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Prestigious British award given annually to a full-length novel. It was established in 1968 by the multinational company Booker McConnell as a counterpart to the French Prix Goncourt. The Booker Prize Foundation administers the prize, aided by an advisory committee. Entries, which are nominated by publishers, must be written by an English-language author from the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth countries, Ireland, or South Africa. Its winners have included Kingsley Amis, A.S. Byatt, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, and Salman Rushdie. In 1992 a Booker Russian Novel Prize was introduced.
Learn more about Booker Prize with a free trial on Britannica.com.
Prizes are given for a number of reasons: to highlight noteworthy or exemplary behaviour, and to provide incentives in competitions, etc. In general, prizes are regarded in a positive light, and their winners are admired. However, many prizes, especially the more famous ones, have often caused controversy and jealousy.
Specific types of prizes include: