are legal entities set up by an individual, a family or a group of individuals, for a purpose such as philanthropy
. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
is an example of a private foundation. Various countries have laws relating to the establishment and operation of these foundations. Unlike a charitable foundation
, a private foundation does not solicit funds from the public.
One of the characteristics of the legal entities existing under the status of "Foundations", is a wide diversity of structures and purposes. Nevertheless, there are some common structural elements that are the first observed under legal scrutiny or classification.
- Legal requirements followed for establishment
- Purpose of the foundation
- Economic activity
- Supervision and management provisions
- Accountability and auditing provisions
- Provisions for the amendment of the statutes or articles of incorporation
- Provisions for the dissolution of the entity
- Tax status of corporate and private donors
- Tax status of the foundation
Some of the above must be, in most jurisdictions, expressed in the document of establishment. Others may be provided by the supervising authority at each particular jurisdiction.
The following foundations are set up under common law legal systems
Foundations were first introduced in The Bahamas
in December 2004 following the Foundations Act
A private foundation, in the United States, is a charitable organization
described in the Internal Revenue Code
by section 509. A private foundation is necessarily a 501(c)(3)
exempt organization (or a former such entity). It is defined by a negative definition: by what it is not. A private foundation is not a public charity
, as described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (i) through (vi). Neither is it a section 509(a)(2) organization, nor a supporting organization
. Private foundations are subject to 2% excise taxes
found in section 4940 through 4945 of the internal revenue code. Once a charity becomes a private foundation, it retains that status unless it follows the difficult termination rules of section 507.
The following foundations are set up under civil law
Private Foundation (Privatstiftung) was last reformed under the Private Foundation Act in September 1993.
Family Foundation (Stiftung) was first introduced in 1926.
A foundation in the Netherlands
(Stichting) is a legal person created through a legal act. This act is usually either a notarised deed (or a will) that contains the articles of the foundation which must include the first appointed board. No government authority is involved in the creation or authorization of a foundation, it acquires full legal capacity through its sole creation. A foundation has no members and its purpose must be stated in its articles, using capital dedicated to such goal. The foundations are defined in the Dutch Civil Code (Burgerlijk Wetboek
), Boek 2 Art 285-304. It is not necessary in the Netherlands that a foundation serves a purpose of general interest, but its official goal cannot include making payments to anybody, except for charitable causes. The foundations are governed and represented by a board that is responsible for its administration, this board has not a requirement for specific number of members.
Art. 2:289 of the Civil Code establishes that all foundations must be registered in the Register of Commerce or "Handelsregister". Commercial activities are allowed if they are within the purpose of the foundation and are taxed. Board members can be held liable for the foundation, civilly as well as criminally.
The Dutch Tax Service can declare an institution to be an "institution for general benefit" (algemeen nut beogende instelling, ANBI), with tax benefits. Often, but not necessarily, this is a foundation. Conversely, not every foundation qualifies.
Foundation legislation was last reformed in 1998, giving rise to the Netherlands Antilles
Private Foundation (Stichting Particulier Fonds).
BarklaysInterTrust NV is Netherlandse Antilles Private Foundation specialist
Multiform Foundation was first introduced in 2005.
The Panama Private Interest Foundation
was first introduced in 1995, modelled on the Liechtenstein Family Foundation.
The Saint Kitts
Foundation was introduced following the Foundation Act of 2003.
A private foundation in Sweden
(Stiftelse) is formed by a letter of donation from a founder donating funds or assets to be administered for a specific purpose. A private foundation may have diverse purposes, including but not limited to collective, familiar, or the purpose of passive administration of funds. Normally, the supervision of a private foundation is done by the county government where the foundation has its domicile, however, large foundations must be registered by the County Administrative Board (CAB), which must also supervise the administration of the foundation. The main legal instruments governing private foundations in Sweden are those that regulate foundations in general: the Foundation Act (1994:1220) and the Regulation for Foundations (1995:1280).